University of Applied sciences Velika Gorica is higher education institution which provides five undergraduate professional and three postgraduate specialist study programmes with curricula realized using advanced technologies, that are being constantly improved, renewed and allowing the students easier knowledge transfer so that when they enter the labour market they will have better opportunities of employment and getting ahead in their careers, i.e. existence in one of today’s modern organizations. The study programmes of the University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica last for three years (six semesters) and they are harmonized with the Bologna Declaration and performed in compliance with the Act on Scientific Research and Higher Education. The curricula and programmes are harmonized with ECTS – the European Credit Transfer System, thus enabling the transfer of students from other professional or university study programmes to VVG and vice versa, all in compliance with the Act and Statute of the University of Applied Sciences. The curriculum and the structure of the programmes of the professional three-year study have been designed having in mind sustainability, competitiveness and further development, using the principles of optionality and substantial share of practical classes. Those programmes are:
Computer systems maintenance
Motor vehicle maintenance.
Also there are three specialist programmes:
The objectives of our visit were learning of institutional quality assurance system in higher education in Finland and its development at different HEIs and in different countries. Besides learning of good practice at a Finnish HEIs it was good time for exchanging experiences with HAMK University of Applied Sciences, Laurea University of Applied Sciences, Aalto University and its role in the system of Finnish higher education.
Main goals for the visit were:
How to improve internal audits of quality assurance system
How to achieve continues improvement of quality culture at a higher education institutions
How to simplifies procedures of internal audits
How to write good reports
Integration of ISO and ESG.
Revision of Quality policy, Strategy and etc.
The results of our visit were better understanding of all procedures and criteria implement by FINHEEC, better audit procedure of higher education institutions, easier implementation of quality policies and strategic goals in own institution, easier motivation of all stockholders at University of Applied Science Velika Gorica, improvement and motivation method for mobility, definition the influence of higher education institution on regional development and transfer of knowledge and relations with all stockholders.
In FINHEEC we present quality assurance system in higher education in Croatia and we particularly discuss the method of enhancement led evaluations, impact of external audits on the development of higher education institutions quality assurance systems. Also we try to find answers on some questions like: How to improve external audits of quality assurance system and how to develop the methods and write good reports?
At Laurea University of Applied Sciences we meat Mrs. Jaana Ignatius and we talked about the quality culture and good practices of quality procedures in Laurea. Also we shared experiences about developing of the shared quality management of federation of Universities of Applied Sciences- HAMK, Lahti and Laurea Universities of Applied Sciences.
At the Aalto University we met Mr. Sakari Heikkilä, Mrs. Tuija Nikko (quality director) from School of Business and Prof. Olli Saarela from School of Engineering. It was open discussion about quality issues like strategy plans and systematic improvements true PDCA (plan, do, check, act) cycle.
At HAMK University of Applied Sciences we met Mrs. Mervi Friman and from HAMK student union Mr. Riku Kemppinen and Mrs. Tanja-Maria Hyppänen. The subject was quality culture and good practices of quality assurance procedures in HAMK. In the afternoon we attend professional teacher education lead by prof. Vesa Parkkonen.
We like to thank all our hosts for very nice organisation and hospitality.
Sanja Kalambura, PhD., prof. Vice dean for quality, University of Applied Sciences Velika Gorica, email@example.com
Nives Jovičić, Spec.ing.cris.man., quality department, University of Applied Science Velika Gorica
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Learning of Institutional Quality Assurance System in Higher Education in Finland – Visit to FINHEEC and to Finnish higher education institutions in October 2013, Erasmus Programme 1070
Cooperation of St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (SPbSPU) with Finnish Universities of Applied science is an important issue in the agenda of the SPbSPU internationalization. Finnish UAS are one of the most important strategic partners of our University. Cooperation between our institutions is implemented in the field of student exchange programs, joint educational programs, undergraduate and graduate programs, joint innovation projects for cross-border cooperation.
Working internationally SPbSPU had been visited by 254 delegations and teams a total of 714 people from 40 countries in the current year. The leader in the number of visitors is Finland -148 people. This is not surprising, given the large number of research projects and joint education bachelor’s and master’s programs, conducted SPbSPU together with the universities of Northern neighbor.
Valuable example of cooperation is long term history of work with Savonia University of Applied Science. Started in 2005, when SPbSPU Deans Club was invited to visit Savonia for familiarization visit, our universities’ cooperation has been reinforced by cooperation agreement on strategic partnership, signed by rectors of the universities in 2010. One of the most successful projects is the “Network for excellence in tourism through organizations and Universities in Russia”.
More than a hundred students and teachers of Savonia have been participating in short term study programs in business, IT, Russian language and culture, vocational training programs conducted by SPbSPU within last years. Saimaa University of Applied Sciences is one of our partners in double degree programs cooperation. “Theory and practice of organizational, technological, and economic decision-making“, “Organization and management of investment and construction projects“, “Automated design of buildings“, “Energetic and Sustainable Development“ – here is the list of joint degree programs developed and successfully conducted by our universities.
Our university cooperation with Finnish Universities of Applied sciences has a wide frame, long standing traditions and stable mutual benefits. There are a lot of Universities which are worse to be mentioned here such as Mikkeli University of Applied Sciences – our good partner in Civil Enginireeng, Haaga Helia UAS – partner in Russian language, culture and tourism, Kymenlaakso UAS – Design, Russian Language, business studies etc.
In 2012, together with the Finnish partners we celebrated 100 years of engineering education in Finland which was hosted by Tampere University of Applied Sciences. We were proud to be invited to this event, proud to understand committed partnership between UASs in Finland and HEIs Russia that lays the ground for our mutual long term success in training of highly qualified specialists.
Elena Nikonchuk, Director, International Educational Projects Office, St.Petersburg State Polytechnical University, firstname.lastname@example.org
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Cooperation with Universities of Applied Science in Finland is one of the important issues of international cooperation of SPbSPU 894
While young people of the Barents Region move to the southern parts for the better employment and career possibilities, demographic downsizing should serve as a wake-up call to universities and industry in the region. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences and Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences (further referred as LapinAMK due to the recent merger) have been for many years on the front line of regional development work in terms of business innovation and human capital growth.
At the beginning of 2012, Lapin AMK in cooperation with partners from Russia, Norway and Sweden launched 3-year project Young Innovative Entrepreneurs (YIE) aimed to address common challenge and to encourage young people to discover wide business opportunities in the Barents region and to inspire them for the entrepreneurship across the border.
In this article we share some of our experiences and achievements:
Building an innovative support structure to make the ideas of young people to happen across the borders
Cross-border INNOBarentsLab (IBL) was established to ensure a full range of resources to provide young people with the support they need to introduce innovative products and services. The IBL includes office space on the base of two universities – LapinAMK in Rovaniemi and International Institute of Business education (MIBO) in Murmansk, Russia. In terms of professional recourses, IBL provides students with the professional support and supervision for real cross-border business development by experts from business and education.
Currently, the operation of the IBL is driven by the cross-border pilot cases worked-out by the test group of students and young entrepreneurs. IBL pilot cases organized within 4 themes: event management, marketing, cross-border development and IBL structure development. By the end of the project the IBL will be integrated into the educational structure of LapinAMK and MIBO and will allow us to test students’ ideas within the study process and turn the best of them into companies.
IBL is truly unique entity for young cross-border business cooperation in the Barents region. In the longer run we expect it to evolve to the broader network which will support young people to challenge the status quo with their ideas and change their regions to the prestigious places to live.
Building capacities and opportunities
It is essential to help young entrepreneurs to build a long-term cooperation network which will support their cross-border interactions and contact development. In this regard the role of the joint event cannot be overestimated. So far we held tree Matchmaking events in Finland, Russia and Norway. We arranged YIE events as arena were regional actors (experienced businessmen, academia and regional authorities) share their experiences and encourage young people. This is also a place where new cross-border business ideas are emerged and new business alliances created.
Previous 3 matchmaking events included pitch presentations and workshops by successful businessmen, business simulation game, pitching training. Feedbacks from the last Matchmaking event in Kirkenes (Norway) indicated that young people have learned a lot about innovation, how to create new products and how to later receive a profit from them, which is an important part of being an entrepreneur.
Sharing responsibilities and encourage initiativeness of young people
From the start, both in Finland and Russia we selected a group of proactive young individuals to be a pilot group for the INNOBarentsLab Lab. Some of them had already built successful businesses and some were just getting started into entrepreneurship. Some had never had business before, but all them had a strong desire to make a difference in the own region.
The first meetings with selected young people showed that the “test group” is too narrow for them. In no time, our IBL participants became and continue to be co-creators and steering force for the development of the IBL and its activities. Understanding that they can make a difference inspired young people to bring up fresh ideas, business projects and new partners.
Ones inspired, young people tend to come up with great innovative business ideas. In this case, our task is to provide support for the actual entrepreneurship and innovative idea development in practice. Increased innovative entrepreneurial activities across the border will also have a great impact on the whole regional socio-economic development. Youth are the future of the Barents region and the foundation that the project will lay for the innovative entrepreneurial activity amongst young people will have a long term impact on the region.
Irina Gerashchenko, Project Manager, Rovaniemi University of Applied Sciences, Irina.email@example.com
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa How to keep young people in the Barents region 921
The UAS Journal is under a constant scrutiny: the editing team has looked into the making process of the journal to find out whether or not the development activities have been successful.
Dr Mervi Friman, Mr Mauri Kantola, and Ms Lotta Linko have looked in the processes of the journal bearing in mind the aim of the publication. The method used is action research with quantitative analysis on the contents, production process, and the participating network of the UAS Journal. The writers have studied what the interventions on the UAS Journal network and publication are and what outcomes of those interventions can be identified and measured.
Three processes can be identified in the UAS Journal publication: editing, marketing and networking. The processes are somewhat overlapping particularly in the areas of marketing and networking.
During the past couple of years, there have been six identified interventions in the editing process. The marketing and networking processes have both had four interventions. The figure below sums the interventions and outcomes. Click on the image to view it in larger size.
The outcomes in some cases are very streamlined, supporting each other. One example of a consequentual action/outcome is the following: The introduction of theme issues and visiting editors in the editing process has sharpened the contents and allowed a more focused marketing. The targeted marketing has resulted in more visitors which again is supported by social media presence, allowing to share the article wider.
Mr Mauri Kantola and Ms Lotta Linko attended the EAIR annual conference in Rotterdam in August 2013 where they presented their poster on the actions and outcomes of the UAS Journal processes. The travel report along with other video material can be found at UAS Journal’s YouTube channel.
Ms Lotta Linko, Subeditor of the UAS Journal, firstname.lastname@example.org
Mr Mauri Kantola, Social media expert of the UAS Journal, email@example.com
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa The development actions of the UAS Journal in a nutshell 933
Ammattikoulutuksen ja ammattikorkeakoulutuksen tutkimuspäivät 2012
Puheenvuorossa esitellään havaintoja ja huomioita ammattikoulutuksen ja ammattikorkeakoulutuksen tutkimuspäiviltä Tampereelta 7.-8.11.2012. Tutkimuspäivien tavoitteena oli ammattikorkeakoulutuksen ja ammatillisen koulutuksen tutkimuksen levittäminen ja toimijoiden verkostoituminen. Pääteemana oli Arvot muutoksessa.
Cross-cultural Understanding on the VET and Vocational Higher Education
Opiskelija Dong Seob Lee (Tampereen yliopisto, ammattikasvatus)
The cultural diversity and internal variety of education is currently challenged by the unity of knowledge, skills and competences, showing converging reality at macro-level and divergent and heterogeneous character at the micro-level. The international session from Austria, Sweden, South Korea, Germany, Finland, Switzerland, and Japan unfolds the dynamic, complex picture of the reforms of VET, vocational higher education, labour market policies, and their curricula and contents. In addition, it makes it difficult to define unstable positions of institutions, professionals, and individual learners in the progress of industries from labor-intensive to capital-intensive, and ultimately to technology-intensive.
Faced with these challenges, Dr. Mikkio Eswein traced the change of meaning and values of education and work among younger Japanese between 2001 and 2011. In the period of recession she found out that traditional work- and organization-committed values had gained importance, especially among temporary and female workers. Dr. Lorenz Lassnigg pointed out different approaches for the historical analysis; “in order to understand the reforms of Austrian education and training sector, I think, we can cross the different disciplines, different perspectives, and different theories to approach. We can find very fundamental ideas in different entities, systems and disciplines. Different issues of reform in education and training are tackled by very different disciplines. For instance, people from management discipline are very much trying to make theories of the New Public Management (NPM) work.” In response to Fay Lund-Nilsson´s interpretation of changes in forest workers´ vocational education, Anja Heikkinen commented about differences in the historical and cultural backgrounds of Swedish and Finnish forest work, “If you’re looking into the history related with the VET, the ownership of forest can help to explain it more widely… In Finland forestry belongs to agriculture and therefore solutions in VET may have been different than in Sweden.”
Stefanie Stolz brings out the essential challenges of school-to-work transition between Finish and Swiss VET. She pointed out that steering and reforming process concerning VET and school-to-work transitions are mainly influenced by national discourse although both countries have already or will implement national qualification frameworks under the trans-national agenda. Dong Seob Lee focused on the complexities and challenges in reforming engineering sector of the Ammattikorkeakoulu and Korea Polytechnic University since 1990. He unfolded the meaning and value of vocational education in a process of locating unstable positions between “capitalism” and “community values” on a non-linear timeline in response to different perspectives, concerns and issues of competency based curriculum in different context.
Timo Nevalainen speculated a concept of entrepreneurial education how it is seen in real practice of Finish vocational higher education context. Anja Heikkinen pointed out “when the entrepreneurial education, yrittäjyys, is translated, it is important to identify what different connotation it has had in the Finnish context. It’s more earning one’s living that makes something else profits”. Furthermore, Katrin Kraus said “entrepreneurship education should be critically analyzed because it brings people to show some kind of attitude itself in all institutions and all settings”.
In a series of Marjatta Huhta’s research group presentation, she argued that many studies for the company are not collected as best theory and practice. “The Ammattikorkeakoulu should provide the values to look at profound phenomenon for a coming ready solution.” Anja Heikkinen asserted that “master thesis is a whole academic process both for personal and collective purposes. Hence, how she/ he manage through this process and during this development, the product should be useful afterwards, to give values for the enterprise. In response to that, Marjatta Huhta said “there are some developmental innovations related to the business, I think, the more dialogical studies for most business student.” Furthermore, Erja Turunen commented that “we expect that most of thesis in the Ammattikorkeakoulu are willing to work for some organizations, it is only something for our students. We expect to the master students would be the developers. It’s very often that they do it to be truly as an action research, for they are involved. If they are involved, so they are starting at the beginning and they come out. Most of master programs at the Ammattikorkeakoulu are part time basis for 2 years, which makes it possible for really do something for all the time. Then, have any enough time and include that master thesis? Because some students are delay their studies.”
The issue of inclusion and exclusion with disabilities in dual VET system in Germany can be differently perceived from different actors of sub-cultures in accordance with what angles we are looking for and looking at. The inclusion policy can be perceived as an evil in that the State tried to save their national budgets so that it should be carefully reflected beyond educational and training context. Dr. Manfred Wahle also pointed out in his presentation “the domination of the well-established system of sheltered workshops in the area of VET is without being linked with enterprises, vocational schools and universities in a region. The widely missing cooperation of parents, teachers, instructors and researchers in order to develop adequate concepts of inclusive VET. It should not only think in the framework of education but implement suitable didactical methodological concepts.”
Finally, with the interaction of different cultures in this international session we can grasp more in-depth and holistic pictures which find a feasible solution to the dilemmas that each country faces, while tracing back to the history, and can come to take a proper shape of future VET and vocational higher education to engage in local community and to reflect on the values and meanings of education and training.
Koulutuksen arvovalinnat ja haasteet
Yliopettaja, TtL Heidi Kassara, Tampereen ammattikorkeakoulu
Sessiossa oli kaksi esitystä. Ensimmäinen esityksen piti Lahden ammattikorkeakoulun Innovaatiokeskuksesta YTM Susanna Vanhamäki, joka kertoi mielenkiintoisesta työelämälähtöisestä oppimisesta EcoMill -ympäristötehokkuustyöpajassa. Hanke on ESR -rahoitteinen. Siinä tavoitteena on työelämän kanssa tehtävä yhteistyö, ympäristötehokkuus, opetusteknologiset menetelmät ja projektin oppimistaidot. Se on työelämälähtöistä oppimista käytännössä ja osana perusopetusta, jossa tärkeänä on tietojen ja taitojen lisäksi asenteet ja projektioppiminen. Hieno esimerkki tästä on ammattikorkeakoulun ja oppimiskeskus Fellmanin kanssa tehty projekti, jossa osana kestävää kehitystä kunnostettiin opiskelijoille pajoissa vanhoja kierrätettäviä pyöriä opiskelijoille osana kestävää kehitystä. Opiskelijat ovat tehneet myös Mukkulan koulun jätehuollon suunnitelman. Tähän mennessä saatu palaute on hyvää.
Saman session toisen esityksen piti Hämeen ammattikorkeakoulusta Eija Laitinen. Hän on aloittanut väitöskirjan tekemisen aiheenaan ammattikorkeakoulun opettajien kulttuurienvälinen kompetenssi. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena on lisätä tietoa, jota voidaan käyttää koulutuksen kehittämiseen ja kansainvälistymisen ohjaamiseen. Aihe on tärkeä, koska niin kulttuurienvälisyys kuin kansainvälisyys koskevat meitä kaikkia entistä enemmän. Laitinen korosti, että kulttuurienvälisyyttä voi oppia ja opettaa. Kokemus on tarpeen, mutta kulttuurienvälisyys ei synny pelkästä kokemuksesta, vaan siinä tarvitaan myös itsereflektiota.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Cross-cultural Understanding on the VET and Vocational Higher Education – Ammattikoulutuksen ja ammattikorkeakoulutuksen tutkimuspäivät 2012 962
A university should be prepared for the challenges that have being happening. The university is faced with a complex situation, explains the Portuguese sociologist Boaventura de Sousa Santos (2008), highlighting that increasing demands from society have arisen. The university has to be connected to life, internally or combined with the global scenery, says the Brazilian philosopher Renato Janine Ribeiro (2003), which assumes that we must listen to what society says and wants.
Feevale University was established in 1969 from an initiative of the community. Feevale is located in Novo Hamburgo in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Novo Hamburgo city has arisen from the settlement of German immigrants in Vale do Sinos River. In the seventies, the growth in the footwear industry attracted thousands of migrants. Leather cluster and shoe manufacturing are still a considerable percentage of the local economy but the city hosts important footwear and accessory international fairs as well, positioning itself as a trend and a technological leader in this segment. Committed with the regional development and dedicated to educate citizens in different areas of knowledge, the University has brought cultural, educational, technological, economic and social development for the region.
Feevale has two campuses in Novo Hamburgo, and it is also provided with two extension Technological Parks. The University counts with approximately 16500 enrolled students, 574 Professors out of 1435 employees, 46 Continuous Extension Projects, 70 international partners in 21 countries. 25 Research Groups work in four different fields: Pure Sciences and Technology, Health Sciences, Humanities, Arts and Social Sciences and Applied Social Sciences. Feevale covers all education levels: children’s education, elementary school, high school, professional education, 44 undergraduate programs and graduate studies, Masters and Doctorates degrees.
Knowledge to renew the World
This is the slogan of the University that has the mission to promote the production and the democratization of knowledge, contributing to the development of society. The Institution pursues to be a recognized university in knowledge production and in innovative entrepreneurship. According to its mission and attentive to the social needs for a privileged space for culture, to fulfill regional demands, hosting seminars, graduation ceremonies, plays, concerts and many other kinds of events, the project of a cultural area was conceived for.
Though, from the academic needs and the diffusion of artistic and cultural production in the region, a concert hall was built, named Feevale Theater:
Feevale Theater is a pride for all of us. We believe that the place will allow improvement in the cultural field, transforming the intellectual production of our University. After all, it is not possible to talk about education without speaking about culture, neither talk about culture without speaking about education, affirmed Rector Ramon Fernando da Cunha (Picoral, p. 15, 2011).
The project area covers 21,219.22 square meters. Besides the theater itself there is also a parking lot with 482 parking spaces and there is still a reserved area for a panoramic restaurant to be built.
The theater has 1,826 seats, excellent stage size and a variety of scenic equipment. It arises as the first largest theater in the State and the fourth largest theater in the country inside a university.
Feevale Theater was built inside Campus II of Feevale University next to a major highway of the state (RS239) in order to facilitate the public access.
Seeking to create conditions of accessibility to all citizens, including people with disabilities or reduced mobility, a “ring” was designed. This way, the audience is at the same level of the foyer and the stage, in order to ensure autonomy and independence to everyone: spectators and artists.
The visual programming was designed in a modular and bilingual system considering different situations.
The Opening and The Agenda
In September, 20th 2011, the Spanish tenor José Carreras performed at the theater, opening the new area of culture in Novo Hamburgo. The Theater has also host Rick Wakeman from the United Kingdom; the Celtic Legends from Ireland; Virsky – the National Ballet from Ukraine; Moscow – Circus on Ice among many others international, national and local artists as well.
Cooperation through Culture
The greatness of the project is impressive, but what we should consider is the potential for cultural actions that the concert hall can host. Transcending the conventional areas of education, approaching cultures through national and international performances, are some of the possibilities that we hope to multiply. Expanding the cultural agenda with artistic performances of the representatives from Feevale’s partners, as Finland, with a long tradition of excellence in the arts, would certainly be a highly enriching cooperation through the indelible bonds of culture.
Paula Casari Cundari, PhD, Journalist, Lawyer and Professor In the Social Communication College and Director of International Affairs of Feevale University, Brazil, firstname.lastname@example.org
Adolescence is an essential time for health promotion (Viner et al. 2012, WHO 2012). Lifestyle and health related behaviors adapted during adolescence most often continue through later life and strongly effects future health. Social factors at individual, family, school, community and national level strongly effect health as well as health related behaviors and lifestyles adapted by the adolescents. The role of these factors strongly correlates to the future health of the whole population and the development of nations. Worldwide the strongest determinants of adolescent health are structural and related to the poverty: national wealth, income inequality, access to education, safe and supportive families, schools and peers. The most effective interventions to promote health in adolescents are suggested to relate to the general well-being in every day family life. Also factors, such as addressing risks in adolescents´ social and physical environments, access to education and employment as well as preventing injuries, consumption of alcohol and unsafe sex have been suggested as most relevant factors for promoting the health in adolescence. (Gore et al.2011, Viner et al. 2012.)
Health promotion is strongly based on values and the core question lies in the justification of the content as well as the actions (Leino-Kilpi 2009). Respect for general human rights, doing good and avoiding harm, justice, honesty, reliability, equality and empowerment are strongly related to the justification of health promotion. (Cribb & Duncan 2002, WHO 2011). The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion (1986) is often addressed as the ethical cornerstone for health promoters around the world. According to the Ottawa Charter, health is defined as a resource for everyday life. Education, peace, food, income, social justice, and equity are presented as prerequisites for health and basic foundations for health promotion. (The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion).
As main factors and ethical consideration regarding health promotion in adolescents have shortly been discussed, we now move to an excessively growing and extremely challenging environment of health promotion; the social media. Social media is part of the life of most present day adolescents and they use online social media, such as social networking sites (eg. Facebook and MySpace), blogs and status updating sites (eg. Twitter) and chat rooms (Pujazon-Zazik & Park 2010). The social media includes online activities and virtual communities where people share information and interact using words, pictures, videos and audio material based on shared interests (Safko & Brake 2009). Social media can be categorized into: forums and message boards, review and opinion sites, social networks, blogging and micro blogging, bookmarking and media sharing (Sterne 2010).
Purposes and effects of social media
There are potential positive effects of online socializing. These positive effects have been suggested to relate to building and maintaining social contacts, learning and refining the ability to exercise self-control, express sentiments in a normative manner, develop tolerance, respect to others, critical thinking and decision making (Berson et al.2002). There are also potential negative effects of the online social media, such as cyberbullying, online risk-taking behavior, sexual predators (Pujazon-Zazik & Park 2010), promotion of unhealthy lifestyles (Seidenberg et al. 2012) and sharing of misleading health-related information (Betch 2011).
Several researchers have addressed serious concern about the emotional well-being of present day adolescents (Sourander et al. 2008, Laaksonen et al. 2008, 2010). Additionally there have been suggestions about the social media creating a new, potential mental health problem, the ‘addiction’ to social networks and online games. The research evidence addressing the addictive qualities of the social networks are however still relatively scarce. The social media and networking sites are mostly used for quite common social purposes. Extraverts have been suggested to use social networking sites for social communication whereas introverts tend to use the sites for compensation for “real life” social connections. The negative effects of the social media usage include decreased engagement in “real life” social connections and participation which are reduced academic performance and problems in personal relationships, factors generally related to addictions. (Kuss & Griffiths 2011). As the negative effects of the social media on the real life social relations and school performance have been addressed, some concerning results are reported in the Finnish results of the 2010-2011 School Health Promotion (SHP) Study. According to the 2010-2011 SHP results about 5% of adolescents report use of internet reducing the quality of their social relations, 20-30% report using internet negatively effecting school performance and about 25% report using internet causing disruption in circadian rhythm. (School Health Promotion Study).
In the context of health promotion, social media has been described to be used for five main purposes: 1) communicating with consumers, 2) establishing positive brand pictures, 3) disseminating information, 4) expanding the reach of health promotion to broad and diverse audiences and 5) fostering partnership and engagement (O’Mara 2012, Neiger 2012). The health promoters should utilize the social media for what it potentially can deliver but not as a solution to complexities in health behavior and lifestyles. The social media may carry the potential for evidence based, ethically solid health promotion but also as an environmental for contradictive purposes (Neiger et al. 2012). Next we´ll be presenting few examples of studies describing social media in the context of health promotion.
Importance of online decision making
Research on the effects of internet and social media on health-related decision making is rare but as the use of these new environments are increasing; the body of literature and research on these topics is rapidly growing. People in general report that internet does not affect their decision making but according to Betch (2011) the internet may in fact play a very important role in the persons´ health-related decision making processes. It has been suggested that a person can use information in several phases of the decision making process and that information selected and processed from internet and the social media may significantly affect the current as well as future decisions.
Seidenberg et al. (2011) performed a You Tube video search to analyze the content of the videos related to smokeless tobacco. Description of smell, flavor, social references and interactions were found to be presented in over 50% of the videos. By contrast, references of public health information or the effects of nicotine were identified in only about 10% of the videos. None of the identified videos had restrictions preventing youths from viewing the content. The study suggests that You Tube doesn´t restrict youth from viewing smokeless tobacco videos and calls for attention to prevent social media to become vehicles for promoting smoking in adolescents.
Gold et al. (2011) performed a literature review aiming to examine the extent to which social networking sites (SNS) are used for sexual health promotion. The review identified almost 180 sexual health promotion activities from which only one was identified through a traditional systematic search of the published scientific literature. Most commonly used social networking activities targeted on young people, involved information delivery and were conducted by non-profit organizations. The most commonly used site was Facebook, followed by MySpace and Twitter. The amount of users and posts varied greatly between health promotion activities. The study suggest that social media is used for sexual health promotion but not reported in the scientific literature. Future research is needed to guide the development of health promotion activities in the environments of the social media.
Marketing substance use online
Morgan et al (2010) examined the adolescents´ use of social media web sites to post imagines or videos of themselves describing alcohol consumption, inebriated behavior or use of marijuana. The majority of the identified videos representing use of alcohol depicted females in social situations while videos representing use of marijuana depicted males. The identified videos were quite frequently viewed and gained positive ratings from the viewers. The adolescents´ attitudes toward posting alcohol-related consumption on the social media sites were generally positive and seen as a matter of individual decision making. Marijuana-related posting were however seen more negatively. Future research is needed to provide knowledge about motivation to post images and videos of substance use in the social media as well as the benefits and risks related to these activities. The study however suggests that adolescents in general relatively frequently seem to accept alcohol-related activities.
Moreno et al (2012) examined how the displayed use of alcohol and problematic drinking on Facebook is associated to self-reported problem drinking in adolescents. The adolescents who displayed problematic drinking on Facebook were more likely to score high AUDIT results, suggesting problematic drinking, more likely than the adolescents who did not display such activity. Also the ones who displayed use of alcohol on Facebook were more likely to report alcohol related injuries than the ones who did not display use of alcohol. As a conclusion to the research, it was suggested that Facebook references to problematic use of alcohol was positively associated with high AUDIT scores as well as alcohol related injuries. Further research is suggested to evaluate social media as a tool for targeting populations and send health promoting messages, advertisements or information to selected groups.
The alcohol marketing in the social media use several different strategies. There are real-world-tie-ins that refer to themed night club events across the globe that serve as marketing events of different brands of alcohol. There are interactive games that eg. invite users to suggest alternative endings to commercial videos, sponsored online events that are connected to materials advertising a certain brand. Also encouraging messages to drink have been produced by different alcohol brands. No Facebook posts explicitly recommended responsible or moderate drinking. According to the research social media allows new ways to add marketing to alcohol sales. In additional to the traditional marketing of stimulate conversation about brands but they also allow users to observe, analyze and direct those conversations on a larger scale. Moreover the social media allows embed brand-related activities in the routines of the social media consumptions for excessive amounts of people and encourage real time alcohol use. As a conclusion, social media reaches into new levels of advertising than any previous communications platforms in blurring the boundaries between advertising, consumer interaction and broader social activities (Nicholls 2012).
Adult involvement and research needed
Clearly, there are more than technical skills needed in health promotion in adolescence with social media. The virtual environment has altered the way of communication, learning and socializing for all of its users. The social media consists of, not only interaction between media and other people but also, invisible mental system of the users. In order to promote healthy choices in this unique virtual mental world, adults need to focus on creating and navigating in adolescents’ social environment with them, meaning complex virtual context of multipronged dimensions and approaches to health-related topics.
Evidently adolescents learn more from their peer group online and use social media and online searches as a key source of advice and information than before exploring critical developmental period, social status, friendships and romance. Social media is there for an important environment to empower adolescents´ as in-person contact or with exclusive health content to support health promotion against unhealthy, damaging or traumatizing information and social contacts online. As evidence about the effect of the social media on the health and well-being of adolescents as well as on the content and utilization of methods implemented for health promotion is scarce, future research on this topic is highly recommended.
Camilla Laaksonen, PhD, Turku University of Applied Sciences (TUAS), the Faculty of Health Care, email@example.com
Jan Holmberg, Master of Health Care, http://janholmberg.weebly.com
Marjale von Schantz, PhD, R&D Manager, Turku University of Applied Sciences (TUAS), the Faculty of Health Care
Berson IR, Berson MJ, Ferron JM. 2002. Emerging risk of violence in the digital age: Lessons for educators from an online study of adolescent females in the United States. Journal of School Violence; 1: 51-57.
Cribb A,Duncan P. 2002. Health promotion and professional ethics. Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
Gore, FM, Bloem,PJN,Patton, GC,Ferguson,J, Joseph, V, Coff ey, C, Sawyer,SM, Mathers, CD. 2011. Global burden of disease in young people aged 10–24 years: a systematic analysis. Lancet.
Gold J, Pedrana AE, Sacks-Davis R, Hellard ME, Chang S, Howard S, Keogh L, Hocking JS, Stoove MA. 2011.A systematic examination of the use of online social networking sites for sexual health promotion. BMC Public Health; 21,11:583.
Kuss DJ,Griffiths MD. 2011. Online Social Networking and Addiction—A Review of the Psychological Literature. International journal of environment research and public health; 8(9):3528-52. Epub 2011 Aug 29
Laaksonen C, Aromaa M, Heinonen OJ, Koivusilta L, Koski P, Suominen S, Vahlberg T,Salanterä S. 2008. Health related quality of life in 10-year-old schoolchildren. Quality of Life Research 17, 1049-1054.
Laaksonen C, Aromaa M, Heinonen OJ., Koivusilta L, Koski P, Suominen S, Vahlberg T, Salanterä S. 2010. The change in child self-assessed and parent proxy –assessed Health Related Quality of Life (HRQL) in early adolescence (age 10-12). Scandinavian Journal of Public Health 38, 9-16.
Leino-Kilpi H. 2009. Terveyden edistämisen etiikka. Teoksessa: Etiikka hoitotyössä. Leino-Kilpi, H. & Välimäki, M. (eds.). WSOY oppimateriaali Oy.
Moreno MA, Christakis DA, Egan KG, Brockman LN, Becker T. 2012. Associations between displayed alcohol references on Facebook and problem drinking among college students. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine;166(2):157-63. Epub 2011 Oct 3
Morgan EM, Snelson C, Elison-Bowers P. 2010. Imagine and video disclosure of substance use on social media websites. Computers in Human Behavior; 26: 1405-1411.
Neiger BL, Thackeray R, Van Wagenen SA, Hanson CL, West JH, Barnes MD, Fagen MC. Use of social media in health promotion: purposes, key performance indicators, and evaluation metrics. Health Promot Pract. 2012 Mar;13(2):159-64
Nicholls J. 2012. Everyday, everywhere: alcohol marketing and social media–current trends. Alcohol and Alcoholism;47(4):486-93. Epub 2012 Apr 23.
O’Mara B. 2012. Social media, digital video and health promotion in culturally and linguistically diverse Australia. Health Promotion International; 4.
Pujazon-Zazik M,Park JM. 2010. To Tweet or Not to Tweet: Gender Differences and Potential Positive and Negative Health Outcomes of Adolescents’ Social Internet Use. American Journal of Men’s Health; 4(1): 77-85.
Safko L, Brake DK. 2009. The social media bible: Tactics, tools and strategies for business success. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley.
Seidenberg AB, Rodgers EJ, Rees VW, Connolly GN. Youth access, creation, and content of smokeless tobacco (“dip”) videos in social media. Journal of Adolescent Health 2012; 50(4): 334-8.
Sourander A, Niemelä S, Santalahti P, Helenius H, Piha J. 2008. Changes in psychiatric problems and service use among 8-year-old children: a 16-year population-based time-trend study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47(3):317-27.
Sterne, J. 2010. Social media metrics: How to measure and optimalize your marketing investment. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley.
Higher education in nursing started in Finland at the beginning of the 1990s. The establishment of tertiary education in nursing was part of an academic drift towards developing the formerly non- university-based, vocationally oriented courses into an internationally more comparable educational model and to develop a nursing education that can serve the changing needs of the rapidly developing world of work. (Pratt 1997; compare Ahola 2006) The education is organised in Universities of Applied Sciences, which have since 2002 also offered practice-oriented Master’s level degree studies. The current Bachelor-level education lasts for 3.5 years and the matriculation examination or vocational education is required from all applicants. (Statute 351 / 2003; 351 / 2003)
The main aim in developing nursing education into a higher educational programme was to enable students to obtain a comprehensive picture of the role of nursing in the Finnish health care. This meant expanding the view of nursing not only in this society but also internationally. It was considered important to enable nurses to acquire a higher level of training in the field of nursing. Previously, vocational nursing education had provided the knowledge and skills for nursing practice, and one aim of higher education in nursing was to develop inquiring minds in the students, in addition to transferring knowledge and skills. The overall aim was to educate a new kind of personnel that can promote innovative changes in the profession (Pratt 1997).
At the end of the 2000s, higher education in nursing in Finland has become well established. This reform in Finnish nursing education has taken into account the Bologna Process, which aimed to create by 2010 a European Higher Education Area where students can choose from a wide and transparent range of high quality courses and benefit from recognition and accreditation procedures. The Bologna Declaration of June 1999 put into motion a series of reforms to make higher education in Europe more compatible, more comparable and more competitive. As a result, nursing students can participate in student exchange programs and nurses can work in the other signatory countries. This kind of nursing education is also available outside Europe: for example, Turkey strives to develop its nursing education in line with the Bologna Declaration. Some central features of nursing education in selected countries are presented in Table 1, based on articles in international journals of nursing (Bahcecik & Alpar 2009; Davies 2008; Khomeiran & Deans 2007; Kyrkjebo et al. 2002; Svavarsdottir 2008; Turale et al. 2008).
Nursing studies at the academic level first commenced in the University of Kuopio in 1979 in the administrative training program. Studies in nursing administration, nurse teacher training and nursing science were organized in the universities in full by 1996. To be able to apply for these programmes, the applicants had to have a nurse specialist qualification. In several countries Master’s level education can be completed either with or without honours, i.e. with emphasis on research studies or with specialization. However, Finnish nurses specialize already during their studies at Bachelor-level, while academic research studies are completed during Master’s degree studies. The development of Master’s level nursing studies has strengthened the research orientation of Finnish nurses. (Kuuppelomäki & Tuomi 2005).
The aim of the reform in nursing education in Finland was to produce nurses who are able to take more responsibility in nursing and can become equal members of multi-professional teams in health care. Before higher education in nursing was established, there had been a national curriculum for nurse education. After the reform in the 1990`s every school of nursing at the Universities of Applied Sciences had to create an individual nursing curriculum for their institution. Besides the content of the curriculum, nursing schools also defined the learning approach they were planning to use. Mainly the schools chose to adopt the ideas of the cognitive view of learning, and therefore underlined the importance of supporting the idea of students’ self-directed learning. (Ponkala 2001; Perälä & Ponkala 1999)
The aim of this article is to describe how the learning approach of nursing students has changed since 1990’s. The data were collected from Universities of Applied Sciences in different parts of Finland during 1996-1997 and 2006-2007. The paper reveals the changes that occurred, and offers some similarities and differences between them.
The approaches to learning nursing
The focus in the training type curriculum had been in clinical skills and nursing care of patients mainly in hospitals (Roxburgh et al 2008). The learning approach used in this kind of nursing curriculum until the 1980s can be described as a didactic learning process. This approach to teaching and learning has also been referred to as the behaviouristic paradigm (Romyn 2001). In this approach, the nursing teacher is considered to be in possession of the necessary knowledge and also knows how to transfer it: in other words, she knows how to teach students. Students are expected to be able to apply this knowledge, first during their laboratory studies, and then in their nursing practice in patient care. Similar features of the learning process have also been described in pedagogy (Knowles 1980) and single loop learning process (Greenwood 1998).
The early 1980s was a turning point in the views of learning in nursing curricula. Student-centered views of learning began to gain more significance in nursing curricula. In Finland, this shift started in the mid-1980s, following the ideas of Marton and Säljö (1976). This learning approach can be associated with constructivism and meaningful learning, which are related to cognitive psychology and the humanistic-psychological model of learning (Apodaca & Grad 2005; Ausubel 1978). The approach emphasised students’ abilities to be active learners who improve and modify the structure of their knowledge. Earlier experiences, knowledge and attitudes influenced the students’ learning process. The teachers role is to support the learner to find information and insight, and to identify learning and work-related problems.
As mentioned earlier, in the 1990’s the idea of students’ self-directed learning was emphasised in the nursing curricula. Self-directed learning is possible when the methods of learning support the students’ own possibilities to plan, carry out and evaluate their learning process (Levett-Jones 2005). Methods such as learning diaries (Blake 2005) and portfolios (Williams & Jordan 2007) have been tested to enhance critical thinking, meaningful and active learning and reflective practice. Portfolios focus especially on supporting students in managing change efficiently. They also help them in terms of self-directed learning to find ways which will assist them in enhancing the quality of their learning activities. Actually, both concept mapping (Hay 2008; Abel 2006; Hsu 2004) and portfolios (Bashook et al. 2008) have been suggested to be very useful in e-learning, too. The self-directed learning approach has changed the role of the teacher, as well. Teachers are seen as facilitators (Badeau 2010, Williams 2004), defined in terms of genuine mutual respect, a partnership in learning, a dynamic, goal-oriented process, and critical reflections between the facilitator and the student. This conception is also connected with the humanistic paradigm in nursing education (Gillespie 2005).
Besides the view of self-directed learning, the co-operational learning became more popular also in the nursing curricula during the 2000’s. Several situated learning theories (Lave & Wenger 1991) and work-based learning (Guile & Griffits 2001) approaches describe the possibilities of learning from one another, and of learning in teams, in terms of democratic dialogues and co-operational meetings. Moreover, the situated learning theory assumes that knowledge is embedded within the context in which it is used and cannot be separated from the activity, context, and culture of that situation (Lave & Wenger 1991; Engeström 2001). Co-operative learning and situated learning have been highlighted as necessary for learning the co-operational methods needed to function as a member of a multi-professional team working in complex situations in health care (Tynjälä 2008). In co-operative learning the ownership of teaching and learning is shared by the students.
The aim of the study and study questions
The aim of the study was to describe how the learning approach of nursing students in Finland has changed since 1990’s . This study set out to answer the following questions from nursing students’ point of view:
i) to what extent did Finnish nursing students demonstrate and express the features of assisting, self-directive and co-operational actors in 1996-1997 and in 2006-2007, as their approach to learning nursing?
ii) what differences are there in nursing students’ approaches to learning nursing between the years 1996-1997 and 2006-2007?
iii) to what extent do the background variables (age, sex, professional or lay experience in nursing) explain the differences in students’ approach to learning nursing between 1996- 1997 and 2006-2007?
Sample and data collection
The data was gathered during 1997 and in 2006-2007 in nursing schools in Universities of Applied Sciences in northern, western, central, eastern and southern Finland in order to get geographically and regionally relevant information.
The amount of nursing schools in the Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences was 24 in 1997, 23 in 2006 and 22 in 2007. The total amount of nursing students in Finland was 5,589 students in 1997, 6,891 students in 2006 and 7,545 students in 2007. Four schools were chosen into the sample in 1996-1997 and six schools in 2006-2007. Three of the schools were the same in both phases of the data collection. The number of nursing students in those sample schools was 712 students in 1997, 2,056 students in 2006 and 2,141 students in 2007. (Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education, online statistics 14 April 2011)
The nursing students (N=1,086) voluntarily answered the questionnaire: 426 in 1997 and 660 in 2006-2007. The response rate in 2006-2007 was 76.4%. In 1997 the researcher administered the data collection at schools. In 2006-2007 the questionnaire (N=864) was delivered to students by the research assistants. The questionnaire was given to all nursing students, who were having their theoretical study period during the data collection (simple random sampling). In 1997 37.5% of the respondents were first year students and 40.1% final year students. Information was missing from 22.5% of the respondents. In 2006-2007, 57.4% of the respondents were first year and 42.6% last year students.
The questionnaire contained questions concerning background factors and 26 Likert-type statements. The following background factors were elicited: sex, age, any children, pre-educational caring experiences and intentions to leave nursing. The statements were designed on the basis of a literature review. The tool consists of three sub-scales measuring nursing students’ approach to learning nursing; the assisting, self-directive and co-operative actor approach. Each sub-scale includes statements measuring the relationship between nursing student and nurse teacher/supervisor, the relationships with peers while learning nursing, and nursing students’ views of learning and of responsibility in the field of nursing
The student with assisting actor approach needs the teacher’s and supervisor’s support, and the encouragement of peers. She is willing to work with an experienced nurse and is able to work as a reliable member of a nursing group. However, she is not willing to take personal responsibility in patient care.
A self-directive actor sees teachers, supervisors and other experts primarily as facilitators who share information with her. Such students want to learn to make decisions independently. They want to develop their individual structure of knowledge continually and develop an inquiring mind towards their work and working environment. They want to learn to take responsibility in their given field.
The co-operational actor wants to test her knowledge, ideas and practices together with peers and a multi-professional team in practical situations during her education. For these students, learning is not an individual but a shared experience. It is possible to create new practices and to evaluate them while learning nursing and developing patient care in health care practice. Co-operational actors are willing to take responsibility as individuals and as members of a multi-professional team.
In Finland, the permission of the Ethical Committee is not required if the research does not deal with patients or other vulnerable groups. After gaining approval for the research from the institutions (today they are called Universities of Applied Sciences), the researchers contacted nursing teachers. The teachers who agreed to participate asked the students to take part in the study and then organized the data collection. Completing the questionnaire was voluntary and the students answered anonymously.
The data were analysed using SPSS for Windows 15.1. Factor analysis was used to compress information into smaller units. The principal component method and Varimax rotation were used in factor analysis. The criteria for separating the variables for factor analysis were the following: sufficiently high loading of items on the factors (≥ .40), high communality values (≥ .30) and as clear a solution as possible. Three factors emerged: co-operational actor, assisting actor, and self-directive actor (Table 2). The sum scores were calculated for each factor. The internal consistency of the sum variables was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Chi-Square test were used for testing the change between the 1990s and the 2000s. The Chi-Square test was used to test the similarities in the demographics. There were only slight differences (max. 10 %) in the demographics between the two time periods of data collection.
Reliability and validity of the measurement tool
The validity and reliability of the measurement tool were tested before use in this study by panel evaluation and subsequently by using psychometric measurements. An expert panel assessed the validity and reliability in terms of readability, homogeneity and content validity using a paper and pencil test. The panel members (Finnish nursing students) assessed all items in terms of clarity and content validity. The agreement on homogeneity with all items was over .60.
Actually, the sumscores used were on ordinal data. However, when using this kind of scale the sumscores can be handled as continuing variables. The Cronbach alpha coefficient was .759 on the whole scale, and validity was measured using explorative factor analysis, which supported the three- factor solution (Nunnally & Bernstein 1994) (Table 2). The value of alphas in the subscales varied from 0.78 to 0.54, which can be seen rather low. However, it is notable that the value of alpha varies according to the number of variables in the measurement tool and subscales, i.e., the more variables, the higher the alpha (Carmenis & Zeller 1979).
Students’ background factors
Most of the participating students were females in both the 1990s (90.4%) and the 2000s (92.4%). In fact, the distribution between the sexes was about the same as it is in nursing in general in Finland (Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education, online statistics 14 April 2011). Moreover, there was not a big difference concerning the age distribution, either: more than half of the participants were in the youngest age group. Furthermore, the nursing students of the 2000s had more professional nursing experience than those of the 1990s. In effect this meant that the nursing students of the 2000s had already had occupational education in nursing: i.e., before continuing their studies in higher education they had been working as nurses and wanted to develop further in nursing. In contrast, the nursing students of the 1990s started their nursing education straight after their secondary education (Table 3).
The changes in nursing students’ approaches to learning nursing in the 1990s and in the 2000s
In the questionnaire, the Likert scale offered choices between 1 (agree) and 5 (disagree). The smaller the mean scores, the more the respondents agreed with the statements. The extent to which the nursing students revealed different approaches to learning nursing varied in the mid-1990s and mid- 2000s (Table 4).
The results show that features of assisting actor were more common among the nursing students in
the mid-2000s than in the mid-1990s. The change was statistically significant (Table 4). On the other hand, the nursing students of the 1990s expressed fewer features of the co-operational actor than did those students who studied in the 2000s. However, there was no change concerning the features of the self-directive actors between the students of the 1990s and those of the 2000s (Table 4).
Connections between background variables and nursing students’ approaches to learning nursing
The results suggest that some of the background variables explain the variation among the nursing students of the different decades. The results show that the female students of the mid-2000s, in general, expressed more features of the assisting orientation to learning nursing than did those studying in the mid-1990s. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the male students of these decades. There was a clear trend of more students in the age groups 17-20 and 21- 23 years expressing features of the assisting approach (p<.001). The nursing students who had had earlier lay experience in the field of nursing and who had studied in the mid-2000s, expressed fewer features of the assisting actor (p<.001) than did students who had studied in the mid-1990s (Table 4).
Neither the age group, sex, nor earlier professional experience in the field of nursing explained the change in nursing students’ self-directive learning approach. The only exception is the youngest age group: students between 17 and 20 years of age were significantly more oriented to self- directedness than the older students. The students of the mid-1990s who had had earlier lay experience in the field of nursing to some extent revealed more features of self-directive learning approach than did students who had studied in the mid-2000s (p=.045) (Table 4).
The background variables explained some of the changes concerning the co-operative approach to learning nursing between the students of the mid-1990s and those of the mid-2000s. Sex explained some of this change in the mid-2000s. The trend was for the expression of fewer features of the co- operational approach to learning nursing in the cohort of the mid-2000s. The difference was statistically significant in both sex groups. Moreover, the age (17-23 and 31-55 years) explained the change in demonstrating fewer features of the co-operative approach to learning nursing when coming to the mid-2000s. The students of the mid-1990s and those who had previous lay experience in the field of nursing expressed more features of co-operational actors than did the students who had studied in the mid-2000s (p=.001). Moreover, the students of the 1990s who intended to change fields in the future showed more features of co-operational actors than did those of the 2000s. The difference was statistically significant (p<.001). Among the nursing students who did not express such intentions, the trend was the same (p<.032) (Table 4).
The aim of the study was to describe how the learning approach of nursing students in Finland has changed since 1990’s. The results suggest that the features of the assisting approach to learning nursing among nursing students were on the increase between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s. The assisting actor approach means that the needs the teacher’s and supervisor’s support, and the encouragement of peers. However, to some extent she hesitates to take personal responsibility in patient care. This is surprising because the learning methods used nowadays are intended to promote self-directiveness among nursing students (Blake 2005; Williams & Jordan 2007; Levett- Jones 2005). However, some students are able to manage their learning process better, whereas others need more supervision (Levett-Jones 2005). According to these results, the number of features of self-directiveness has not changed among these student groups.
The nursing students of the 2000s expressed fewer features of co-operational actors than did those of the 1990s. The co-operational actor approach includes testing knowledge, ideas and practices together with peers and a multi-professional team and emphasises learning as a shared experience. The decrease of these features may be the result of the use of learning methods that support the students’ self-directive learning and individual learning processes. However, nurses have to work as full members of interdisciplinary teams in social and health care. In fact, there are some studies that support the development of interdisciplinary learning in the field of health care (Jacobsen et al.
2009; Steiner et al. 2008). In nursing education in the future, it could be valuable to pay more attention to the development of nursing students into responsible actors in multi-professional health care teams.
There are many measurement tools that can be used to analyse and evaluate the learning styles of students, and they have been used in nursing studies, too (Fountain & Alfred 2009). There are also instruments developed to measure the nurse-patient relationship from patients’ perspective (Suikkala et al. 2009) and to assess the competence of the nurses (Dellai et al. 2009).The measurement tool used in this study was specifically developed for nursing and with nursing teachers and students. As a limitation, the subscales in the measurement tool were short. In fact, it would be useful to develop more valid statements into the subscales. However, based on the results of this study, it is possible to make suggestions regarding suitable learning methods for individual nursing students. We believe that this kind of measurement tool has a place both in students’ peer and self-evaluation, and also in the discussions between supervisors and students when planning learning methods in nursing education.
It is worrying that there are still students in higher education in nursing who are willing to assume an assistant’s role in the field of health care. In the light of this result, it is important to develop teaching and learning methods which are based on the idea of shared learning and improve the students’ self-confidence and development towards expertise in nursing. Moreover, more attention needs to be devoted to learning how to work as a responsible member of a multi-professional team. This should be an important focus in nursing education in the future.
This was the first time that this measurement tool has been used to measure nursing students’ learning approaches in nursing. The measurement tool worked successfully when studying the changes in students’ learning approach in nursing between the 1990s and the 2000s. Furthermore, it could be useful when choosing and developing learning and teaching methods in nursing education in the international scene of higher education. While project-based nursing education, such as learning by developing (Kallioinen 2011) has been established and developed in universities of applied sciences, it would be interesting to study the learning approaches of the students of 2010s.
The authors thank Vivian Michael Paganuzzi, University of Eastern Finland, for his suggestions regarding the language and style of this paper. We are also very grateful to the nurse teachers who have helped us to collect the data, and to the nursing students who participated in our study.
Liisa Vanhanen-Nuutinen, RN, MNSc, PhD, Research Manager, School of Vocational Teacher Education, HAAGA-HELIA University of Applied Sciences, Finland
Sirpa Janhonen, RN, MA, PhD, Professor (emerita), Institute for Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Finland
Maija Maunu, RN, MNSc, Lecturer, Degree Program in Nursing, School of Health and Social Care, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Finland
Helena Laukkala, M.A., Lecturer,Department of Research Methodology, University of Lapland, Finland
Abel, W. M. (2006) Evaluating of Concept Mapping in an Associate Degree Nursing Program. Journal of Nursing Education, 45(9), 356-364.
Ahola, S. (2006) From ’Different but Equal’ to ’Equal but Different’: Finnish AMKs in the Bologna Process. Higher Education Policy (2006) 19, 173–186.
Apodaca, P. & Grad, H. (2005) The dimensionality of student ratings of teaching: integration of uni- and multidimensional models. Studies in Higher Education , 30(6), 723-748.
Ausubel, D. P. (1978) Educational psychology: A cognitive view. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.
Badeau, K.A. (2010) Problem-Based Learning. An Educational Method for Nurses in Clinical Practice.
Journal for Nurses in Staff Development 26(6), 244-249.
Bahcecik, N & Alpar, S. E. (2009) Nursing education in Turkey: From past to present. Nurse Education Today, 29(7), 698-703.
Bashook, P. G., Gelula, M. H., Joshi, M. & Sandlow, L. J. (2008) Impact of students’ reflective e-portfolio on medical student advisors. Teaching & Learning in Medicine, 20(1), 26-30.
Blake, T. K. (2005) Journaling: an active learning technique. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship 2(1), Article 7.
Carmines, E. G. & Zeller, R.A. (1979) Reliability and validity assessment. Beverly Hills, California: SAGE.
Davies, R. (2008) The Bologna process: The quiet revolution in nursing higher education. Nurse Education Today, 28(8), 935-942.
Dellai, M., Mortari, L. & Meretoja, R. (2009) Self-assessment of nursing competencies – validation of the Finnish NCS instrument with Italian nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 23(4), 783- 791.
Engeström, Y. (2001) Expansive learning at work: towards an activity-theoretical reconceptualization.
Journal of Education and Work 14(1), 133-156.
Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education, online statistics 14 April 2011.
Fountain, R. & Alfred, D. (2009) Student satisfaction with high-Fidelity Simulation: Does it correlate with learning styles. Nursing Education Research, 30(2), 96-98.
Gillespie, M. (2005) Student teacher connection: a place of possibility. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 52(2), 211-219.
Greenwood, J. (1998) The role of reflection in single and double loop learning. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 27(5) 1948-53.
Guile, D. & Griffiths, T. (2001) Learning through work experience. Journal of Education and Work 14(1), 113-131.
Hay, D. B. (2008) Developing dialogical concept mapping as e-learning technology. British Journal of Educational Technology 39(6), 1057-1060.
Hsu, L. L. (2004) Developing concept maps from problem-based learning scenario discussions.
Journal of Advanced Nursing 48(5), 510-518.
Jacobsen, F., Fink, A.M., Marcussen, V. Larsen K., and Hansen T. B. (2009)
Interprofessional undergraduate clinical learning: Results from a three year project in a Danish Interprofessional Training Unit. Journal of Interprofessional Care 23(1), 30-40.
Kallioinen, O. (2011) Transformative Teaching and Learning by Developing. Journal of Career and Technical Education 26(2).
Khomeiran, R. T, & Deans, C. (2007) Nursing education in Iran: Past, present, and future. Nurse Education Today 27(7), 708-714.
Knowles, M. (1980) The modern practice of adult education: from pedagogy to andragogy. Chicago: Follet.
Kuuppelonmäki, M., &Tuomi, J. (2005) Finnish nurses’ attitudes towards nursing research and related factors. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 42, 187-196.
Kyrkjebo, J. M., Mekki., T. E. & Hanestad, B. R. (2002) Issues and innovations in nursing education. Short report: Nursing education in Norway. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 38(3), 296-302.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Levett-Jones, T.L. (2005) Self-directed learning: implications and limitations for undergraduate nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 25(5), 363-368.
Marton, F. & Säljö, R. (1976) On qualitative differences in learning – 1: outcome and process. British Journal of Educational Psychology 46, 4-11.
Nunnally, J. C. & Bernstein, I. H. (1994) Psychometric Theory. Third Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill. Perälä, M.-L. & Ponkala, O. (1999) Tietoa ja taitoa terveysalalle – terveysalan korkeakoulutuksen arviointi. Korkeakoulujen arviointineuvoston julkaisuja no 8. Helsinki, Edita.
Ponkala, O. (toim.) (2001) Terveysalan korkeakoulutuksen arvioinnin seuranta. Korkeakoulujen arviointineuvoston julkaisuja no 11. Helsinki, Edita.
Pratt, J. (1997) The Polytechnic Experiment: 1965-1992. The Society for Research into Higher Education. Bristol: Open University Press.
Romyn, D. (2001) Disavowal of the the behavioristic paradigm in nursing education: What makes it so difficult to unseat? Advances in Nursing Science, 23(3), 1-10.
Roxburgh, M., Watson, R., Holland, K., Johnson, M., Lauder, W., Topping, K. (2008) A review of curriculum evaluation in United Kingdom nursing esucation. Nurse Education Today 28, 881-889. Statute (2003) Statute concerning the universities of applied sciences 351/2003 (Finland).
Statute (2003) Statute concerning degrees in universities of applied sciences 352/2003 (Finland). Steiner, J. L., Ponce, A. N., Styron, T., Aklin, E. E. & Wexler, B. E. (2008) Teaching an interdisciplinary approach to the treatment of chronic mental illness: challenges and rewards. Academic Psychiatry 32(3), 255-258.
Suikkala, A., Leino-Kilpi, H. & Katajisto, J. (2009) Factors related to the nursing student-patient relationship: the patients’ perspective. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23(4), 625-634. Svavarsdottir, E. K. (2008) Excellence in Nursing. A Model for Implementing Family Systems Nursing in Nursing Practice at the Institutional Level in Iceland. Journal of Family Nursing, 14(4), 456-468.
Turale, S., Ito, M. & Nakao, F. (2008) (Quest Editorial) Issues and challenges in nursing and nursing education in Japan. Nurse Education in Practice, 8(1) 1-4.
Tynjälä, P. (2008) Perspectives into learning at the workplace. Educational Research Review, 3(2), 130-154.
Williams, B. (2004) Self direction in a problem based learning. Nurse Education Today 24(4), 277-285. Williams, M. & Jordan, K. (2007) The nursing professional portfolio: a pathway to career development. Journal of Nurses in Staff Development, 23(3), 125-131.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Changes in Finnish nursing students’ learning approaches between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s 1162
The European Students’ Union (ESU) is the umbrella organisation of 47 National Unions of Students (NUS) from 38 countries. SAMOK (The Union of Students in Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences) and SYL (The National Union of University Students in Finland) are members of ESU from Finland, representing the interests of Finnish students in ESU.
In April I was elected the vice-chairperson of ESU for the upcoming year 2012-2013, being the first Finnish student from a University of Applied Sciences to be in the presidency of ESU. I will not only represent Finnish students but students from the 38 countries where ESU has members.
My story of how I got involved in ESU starts in METKA, the student union of Metropolia UAS, where in 2009 I was a member of the executive committee. I was a first year student in Metropolia, studying Social Services. The following year in 2010, I worked on international affairs in the executive committee of SAMOK, representing Finnish students in universities of applied sciences in ESU. After my mandate finished in SAMOK, I got involved in ESU as a member of the social affairs committee for the year 2011.
The aim of ESU is to represent and promote the educational, social, economic and cultural interests of students at the European level towards all relevant bodies and in particular the European Union, Bologna Follow Up Group, Council of Europe and UNESCO. Through its members, ESU represents over 11 million students in Europe. ESU is run by students, whom come from all over Europe. The headquarters are in Brussels, Belgium, where the staff and presidency of ESU work full-time. The presidency consists of the chairperson and two vice-chairpersons. I look forward to moving to Brussels and starting my mandate in July with great enthusiasm. Europe is faced with many challenges due to the economic crisis, with higher education taking big hits through the budget cuts and rising tuition fees all over Europe.
Imagine having to pay a 1000€ more from one year to another as the tuition fees rise or having to pay an extra 600€ for failing an exam. This is what is happening in Spain. In Portugal, students are forced to leave their studies due to the student support being cut. In Hungary, the government recently passed a law which binds state-funded students to work a certain number of years in Hungary after graduation, restricting the free movement of people. In addition the number of student support is being cut dramatically. While all of these changes are taking place, in April ministers of higher education gathered in Bucharest for the 8th Ministerial Conference of the Bologna Process to set priorities for the next three years.
One priority laid down in the Bucharest Ministerial Communiqué aims to “Strengthen policies of widening overall access and raising completion rates, including measures targeting the increased participation of underrepresented groups.” The actions of the governments in the three examples given previously work clearly in the opposite direction of what the ministers promise to work towards in the upcoming years, as cutting student support and raising tuition fees affects the students from lower socio- economic backgrounds first and foremost. The near-sightedness of governments and higher education systems now will end up causing more damage to the society in the long run, as having highly educated professionals are the basis of economic growth.
Even if it seems that some countries have more work to do to reach the targets of the Bologna Process, they are equally valid and need further work from governments and higher education institutions in all of the Bologna Process countries. In Finland we may have a universal student support system, providing student grants for everyone despite their socio-economic status, but still have groups that are underrepresented in higher education. Some measures are for example being taken to increase the entry levels of immigrants to higher education, especially to universities of applied sciences, but they are still a largely underrepresented group in Finnish higher education institutions.
Ensuring and safeguarding a system where students are not penalized and end up paying 600€ when faced with a difficult subject or where students do not have to drop out due to not being supported, goes a long way. Student representation and doing what I will be doing for the next year would become nearly impossible as I still have some studies left to finish. We have the luxury of taking a year off our studies to work for a better tomorrow of fellow students and engage in civil society activities, which support the personal and professional growth of an individual, allowing one to gain more perspective into their studies as well as future work life. I am lucky to have this opportunity and as the vice-chairperson of the European Students’ Union I will work to try and make this a reality for as many students as possible in Europe.
The writer was recently elected the vice-chairperson of ESU for the upcoming year 2012 – 2013. Moisander ist the first Finnish student from a University of Applied Sciences to be in the presidency of ESU.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Finnish Perspectives from the European Level 984
The starting point of this pilot study and the larger project around it was the concern about student wellbeing in higher education institutions (HEIs). In a recently published study the students of Finnish universities of applied sciences felt that the strongest factors associated with their ability to study were their personal resources and their social study environment (Lavikainen 2010: 97–108). Many studies report that students feel less satisfied with their lives than the general population (Vaez, Kristenson, & Laflamme 2004; Kjeldstadli et al. 2006).
Student wellbeing can be examined from the viewpoints of general life-satisfaction (Krokstadt 2002), self-esteem (Mellor, Cummins, Karlinski & Storer 2003), stress (Lopez et al. 2001) and coping (Vitaliano et al. 1985). However, the belongingness dimension seems to be increasingly important one when we look at the higher education institutes nowadays. The concept ‘belongingness’ has been used more than before since the 1960s (e.g. Osterman 2000; Levett-Jones et al. 2007). It has been defined from the various viewpoints in social sciences and psychology. According to Hagerty et al. (1992), ‘sense of belonging is the experience of personal involvement in a system or environment so that persons feel themselves to be an integral part of that system or environment’. Baumeister and Leary (1995) and Somers (1999) define belongingness ‘as the need to be, and the perception of being involved with others at different interpersonal levels, which contributes to one’s sense of connectedness (being part of, being accepted, fitting in) and esteem while providing reciprocal acceptance, caring and valuing each other.
Belongingness, connectedness and integration or lack of them, are related to many wellbeing factors of students: self-esteem, burdensomeness, sleep, depression, risk of suicides (Lee 2002; Armstrong et al. 2009; Wong et al. 2011). They are also associated with student retention, academic attitudes, motives and progress which are professional, scientific and economic indicators of success for individual students and for higher education institutions (Tinto 1975; Osterman 2000; Rosenthal et al. 2007; Allen et al. 2008). According to Tinto (1975) student drop out is associated with the students’ degree of academic integration, and social integration. This is why higher education institutions need instruments to follow up students’ sense of belongingness.
Konrath et al. (2011) found that empathy amongst American college students has been declining sharply since 2000 and so has the capacity to take another persons’ perspective into consideration. School shootings are the most serious indicator of separation and malaise. According to Newman (2004), the school shooters are far from being ”loners” but rather ”joiners” whose attempts at social integration have failed. School bullying may lead to a negative view of students’ peers and schoolmates. In the long run, the effects include an increased risk of depression and a negative attitude toward other young adults. (Ministry of Justice, Finland 2009). Lack of integration, belongingness or connectedness characterise often these youngsters. The extent of school shootings indicate that something must be done to improve the wellbeing of the students.
This study is a part of a larger research and development project called ‘Promoting student
wellbeing in Second Life’. The purpose of the project was to promote the availability of student wellbeing services in real world and virtual world. It was financed by the Finnish Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. In previous phases of the project, a qualitative study was conducted involving the students and staff of one large Finnish University of Applied sciences (UAS) in order to find means to promote communal wellbeing and a sense of belongingness. On the basis of those suggestions, an action model was set up for communal meeting spaces that had been established. Also virtual student wellbeing services were constructed and studied their usefulness.
In order to promote belongingness in higher education institutes, we must have instruments to measure it. The aim of this part of the study was to formulate a scale measuring belongingness in higher education institutions.
Materials and methods
This pilot study was conducted during spring 2011. Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences is a multidisciplinary higher education institute having about 16,000 students with 67 degree programmes, 14 of them being taught in English. An invitation to take part in the study via a web-based questionnaire was placed in an internal information portal of University of Applied Sciences. Identical paper questionnaires with boxes for returning them were also placed in seven communal meeting places created in the previous phase of this project. The questionnaires and hard copy versions of them were available in the web for three weeks. The data received from the web based questionnaires was converted to SPSS PASW 18 program directly after the end of the data collection period. The boxes were collected back by the project group members and coded to the same SPSS matrix as the web based data by the first author of this article. This program was also used for the analysis.
The questionnaire began with eleven background questions, four of them about sosiodemographic issues (age, gender, marital status and number of children or other dependents), three about studies (degree programme of the respondent, years of studies and basic education), and four about taking part in student or other activities.
There are many scales measuring belongingness (e.g. Mehrabian 1994; Leary et al. 2007). The 35- item instrument was developed on the basis of the Levett-Jones Belongingness Scale – Clinical Placement Experience (Levett-Jones et al. 2009), which has its ground on the work of Baumeister and Leary (1995) and Somers (1999). This scale was chosen on the basis of instrument development because the Levett-Jones (2009) instrument has also been developed in the higher education context in an institution respective to universities of applied sciences in Finland. The construct validity and consistency reliability of the Levett-Jones (2009) scale were high. The authors believe that belongingness is multifaceted concept that needs to be examined from several viewpoints. The benefit of the scale chosen (Levett-Jones et al. 2009) is that it is multidimensional. The permission to use and modify the scale was received from the creator of the scale in written.
The Levett-Jones et al. (2009) BES–CPE –instrument had 34 items which formed three factors: Esteem subscale (Cronbach’s alpha 0.92) comprising statements being in held esteem by one’s work colleagues, Connectedness subscale (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82) included statements concerned with interpersonal connections, and items included in Efficacy subscale (Cronbach’s alpha 0.80) were about efficacious behaviours undertaken to enhance one’s experience of belongingness. Four of the original items (Q6, Q11, Q15 and Q27) were left out of the questionnaire because they were specific to clinical replacement. Five new items about cooperation and meeting places were added because in the qualitative study by Jenze (2010), which was also part of the same larger study, it was found out that in the higher education context, communal meeting places are very important in order to gain a feeling of belongingness. BES–CPE items Q12 and Q22r, which were excluded from the factor analysis in the testing by Levett-Jones et al. (2009), were included in our questionnaire, but not item Q6. In the instrument the phrase ’clinical replacement’ was substituted with ’University of Applied Sciences’ or the name of it, or ’student community’. The word ’colleagues’ was replaced with the words ’fellow students’ or ’student mates’. Considering the amount of customized and revised items, it can be stated that in this study a new instrument having its grounds in the theoretical structure in the work of Levett-Jones et al. (2009) was formulated.
The instrument was delivered in Finnish and English languages. The customization and first version of the translation was made by the Finnish language project group members who all have good skills in English language. The accuracy of the translation was reviewed by a translator who is both native English and Finnish language speaker. The questionnaire applied five-point Likert-scale. The choices were 1 = never true, 2 = rarely true, 3 = sometimes true, 4 = often true and 5 = always true.
The psychometric properties of the instrument were tested in the same way as in the study of Levett-Jones et al. (2009). Principal component analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser Normalization was performed. The number of factors was restricted to three and Cronbach’s alphas were calculated in order to determine internal consistency of the scales.
Permission for the study was asked from and granted by the vice rector of the University of Applied Sciences. A letter explaining the purpose, financier, voluntary of responding, executors and time of responding was enclosed to the electronic as well as to the paper format questionnaires.
Although the questionnaire was available for all the students of the University of Applied Sciences (n=16 000), only 57 responses were received. These represented all the faculties of the UAS: Business school, Civil engineering and building services, Culture and creative industries, Health care and nursing, School of information and communication technology, Industrial engineering, and Welfare and human functioning. The mean age of the respondents was 24 years, with 37% of them married or living in a registered relationship, and there were students from all the semesters of the three and a half years that completing a degree takes. Most of them (75%) had college-level training as basic education, and 60% of them belonged to some real-life community and the same proportion of them to some virtual community.
Principal component analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser Normalization was performed for all the 35 variables of the belongingness scale. Eight components with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted accounting 73.44% of the variance. However, this factor structure did not fit into the theory of the instrument because the first factor comprised most of the variables and the remaining seven factors consisted of one to three items. Factor solutions with five to three factors were run, and out of those the three-factor solution fitted best to the theory of belongingness in the context of higher education institutions. This three-component solution accounted for 52.12% of the higher education institutions students’ sense of belongingness.
The variables stemming from the original scale of Levett-Jones et al. (2009) and the new items created for this study loaded to the factors quite in a different way than in the study of Levett-Jones et al. (2009). For that reason they were renamed. Items loading to the first factor (n=22) were about feeling connected to other students and being part of student community. The first factor accounted for 27.78% of the variance. The items loading to the second factor (n=9) described feeling part of, and belonging to the UAS as higher education institution: importance of cooperation between the degree programmes, taking part to common activities and about the relation to the UAS staff. This factor accounted for 12.44% of the variance. The third factor having four items was about the integration to the student community and higher education institution. It explained 11.97% of the variance. (Table 1)
Cronbach’s Alpha of the first factor ‘Connectedness to the student community’ was 0.95 and item– factor correlations varied between 0.37 (weakest) and 0.84 (strongest). However, leaving any statement out of the scale would not have given higher Alpha to the scale. Scale ‘Connectedness to higher education institution’ received Cronbach’s Alpha 0.84. Item–scale correlations were between 0.23 and 0.70. Leaving out the item ‘I have liked the University of Applied Sciences’ lecturers I have met’ would have given Alpha size of 0.85. The variable was left on the scale because of its importance from the viewpoint of content. The last factor ‘Integration’ received Cronbach’s Alpha 0.81 with item scale variation between 0.49 and 0.80. Leaving the last two items out would have resulted a higher Alpha. The scale was given the name Belongingness in Higher education institutions BES-HE (Table 2)
Belongingness in the higher education institute
In the University of Applied Sciences where the study was made the students gave highest scores to Connectedness to student community dimension of belongingness (mean 3.92), scale Integration mean score was 3.82 and Connectedness to higher education institute 3.48. There was no difference between genders in the sense of belongingness but all the dimension of if had mild inverse correlation with age (0.33 to 0.43).
Limitations of the study
The weakest point of the study is the low response rate of the study. Only 57 students answered the questionnaire although there were about 16,000 students in the UAS in question. Although the sample size was small, the respondents represented all the faculties of the UAS. However since the number of respondents was so low, there may be some selection in the sample e.g. students that are most interested in student wellbeing and social issues may have responded. This may have caused some bias to the responses favouring more positive views about the belongingness in the University of Applied Sciences in question.
The data collection was performed as a part of a larger study and comprised only a part of it. The questionnaire as an entity was too long and the marketing of the study could also have been better. However, this was a pilot study and the number of answers received was enough for running validity and reliability tests. Johanson and Brooks (2010) suggest that 30 representative participants from the population of interest is a reasonable minimum recommendation for a pilot study where the purpose is preliminary survey or scale development. The study was performed in just one UAS of Finland, which poses a limitation of geographic generalization. However, being the largest and multidisciplinary UAS in Finland, students all over the country and also from other countries apply for and study in this UAS. Because of the small response rate the results are only indicative need validation with larger and more geographically representative sample. It should also be culturally validated.
The BES–HE items loaded to the three factors quite differently than in the validation study of BES– CPE instrument by Levett-Jones et al. (2009), which was made in the context of clinical placement. To the first factor loaded about equal proportion of items from each three original subscales of BES– CPE plus one of the four new statements. However, although the factor structure looked different compared to the BES–CPE scale, it was quite logical when thinking about the context of BES–HE instrument. In the context of higher education social connectedness to individual students is one dimension of belongingness, and commitment to educational institution another (e.g. Allen et al. 2008). The student may feel connected to the fellow students but not connected or committed to the higher education institution or vice versa. To the third factor were loaded four statements which indicate integration to the student community and to the UAS as a higher education institution. In the lives of UAS students, integration is one of the most important developmental tasks especially during the first year of study but also for the students of all the semesters. Like Hagerty et al. (1992) state, integration or ‘experience of personal involvement in a system or environment’ is one central dimension of belongingness. This is why the last factor was given the name Integration.
All the dimensions of belongingness are important but also some different meaning for the higher education students may be found. If we think about individual students’ mental health and general wellbeing the subscales ‘Connectedness to student community’ and ‘Integration’ are the most important. If students feel respected, accepted and supported by other students and is involved in the student community, communicating freely with fellow students, they are better equipped to withstand many threats of student life such as lack of self-esteem in the face of failures, depression, stress and burdensomeness (Lee 2002; Armstrong et al. 2009; Wong et al. 2011). If the student does not feel connected to the student community, it may lead to adverse behaviour as may be read e.g. in the reports about school massacres (Ministry of Justice, Finland 2009). The subscale ‘Connectedness to HE institution’ which comprised items about cooperation between different degree programmes and staff may have more to do with the education success indicators. If the student feels at home in the higher education institution, gets along with the staff, feels that he is supported enough by the institution, this has a positive impact on the retention and progress of the studies (Tinto 1975; Rosenthal et al. 2007; Allen et al. 2008).
As a result of this pilot study, Belongingness in Higher education institutions scale was formed. It comprises three subscales totalling 35 items. Supported by theories of the topic (e.g. Tinto 1975; Rosenthal et al. 2007; Allen et al. 2008) and on the basis of the results of this study the authors suggest that the subscales ‘Connectedness to student community’ and the subscale ‘Integration’ are associated with student wellbeing. They also suggest that the subscale ‘Connectedness to higher education institution’ is associated with success indicators of higher education institutions.
1st and corresponding author: RT, PhD, Principal Lecturer Eija Metsälä, firstname.lastname@example.org Coordinator, Learning centre for evidence-based practice, Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences, Health care and nursing
Allen, J., Robbins, S.B. & Casillas, A. 2008. Third-year college retention and transfer: Effects of academic performance, motivation, and social connectedness. Research in Higher Education, 49 (7), 647–664.
Armstrong, S. & Oomen-Early, J. 2009. Social connectedness, self-esteem, and depression symptomatology among collegiate athletes versus nonathletes. Journal of American College Health, 57(5), 521–526.
Baumeister, R. & Leary, M. 1995. The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117(3), 497–529.
Hagerty, B., Lynch-Sauer, J., Patusky, K., Bouwserna, M. & Collier, P. 1992. Sense of Belonging: A vital mental health concept. Archives of the Psychiatry Nursing, 3, 172–177.
Jenzte, M. 2010. There is no worse thing than to be left alone. Developing communal wellbeing in Metropolia University of Applied Sciences (in Finnish language with English abstract) Unpublished Master thesis in Degree programme of Development and Leadership in Health Care and Social services.
Johanson, G.A. & Brooks, G. P. 2010. Initial Scale Development: Sample Size for Pilot Studies. Educational and Psychological Measurement 70(3), 394–400.
Kjeldstadli, K., Tyssen, R., Finset,A., Hem, E., Gude, T. Gronvold, N.T., et al. 2006. Life satisfaction and resilience in medical school – a six-year longitudinal, nationwide and comparative study. BioMed Central Medical Education, 6:48. http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6920-6-48.pdf (Accessed 22.12.2011)
Konrath, S. H. 2011. Changes in dispositional empathy in American college students over time: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15, 180–198.
Krokstad, S., Johnsen, R. & Westin, S. 2002. Social determinants of disability pension: a 10-year follow-up of 62 000 people in a Norwegian county population. International journal of Epidemiology, 31, 1183–1191.
Lavikainen, E. 2010. Opiskelijan ammattikorkeakoulu 2010. Tutkimus ammattikorkeakoulu- opiskelijoiden koulutuspoluista, koulutuksen laadusta ja opiskelukyvystä. (With English abstract. Students’ University of Applied Sciences 2010. A study about the UAS’s students’ routes of learning, quality and capacity of learning). Opiskelijajärjestöjen tutkimussäätiö 35/2010.
Leary, M. R., Kelly, K. M., Cottrell, C. A. & Schreindorfer, L. S. 2007. Individual differences in the need to belong: Mapping the nomological network. Unpublished manuscript, Duke University.
Lee, R. M., Keough, K. A. & Sexton, J. D. 2002. Social connectedness, social appraisal, and perceived stress in college women and men. Journal of Counseling & Development, 80(3), 355–361.
Levett-Jones, T., Lathlean, J., Higgins, I., & McMillan, M. 2009. Development and psychometric testing of the Belongingness Scale–Clinical Placement Experience: An international comparative study. Collegian, 16, 153–162.
Levett-Jones, T., Lathlean, J., Maguire, J. & McMillan, M. 2007. Belongingness: A critique of the concept and implications for the nursing education. Nurse Education Today, 27(3), 210–218.
Lopez, F. G., Mauricio, A. M., Gormley, B., Simko, T., & Berger, E. 2001. Adult attachment orientations and college student distress: The mediating role of problem coping styles. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 459–465.
Mehrabian, A. (1994). Evidence bearing on the Affiliative Tendency (MAFF) and Sensitivity to Rejection (MSR) scales. Current Psychology, 13, 97–116.
Ministry of Justice, Finland. 2009. Jokela school shooting on 7 November 2007. Report of the Investigation Commission. Publication 2009:1.
Newman, K., Fox, C., Harding, D., Mehta, J. & Roth W. 2004. Rampage: The Social Roots of School Shootings. New York: Basic Books.
Osterman, K. F. 2000. Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of Educational Research, 70, 323–367.
Rosenthal, D. A., Russell, J., &Thomson, G. 2007. Social connectedness among international students at an Australian university, Social Indicators Research 84 (1), 71–82.
Somers, M. 1999. Development and preliminary validation of a measure of belongingness. PhD, Psychology thesis, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA.
Tinto,V. 1975. Dropout from Higher Education: A Theoretical Synthesis of Recent Research Review of Educational Research 45, 89–125.
Vitaliano, P.P., Russo, J., Carr, J.E., Maiuro, R.D., & Becker, J. 1985. The Ways of Coping Checklist – Revision and Psychometric Properties. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 20, 3–26.
Wong, Y. J., Koo, K., Tran, K. K., Chiu, Y.-C. & Mok, Y. 2011. Asian American College Students’ Suicide Ideation: A Mixed-Methods Study. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(2), 197–209.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Formulating belongingness scale for higher education students – a pilot study 1433
Societies in Finland and Japan are aging at an alarming rate [7, 8]. As the structure of the population is shifting towards the elderly, studies have shown that Finland is facing a crisis when the cost of supporting the elderly rises and the amount of caretakers is not sufficient enough for support .
The numbers of elderly who live alone grows and the older they get, the more assistance they require . The amount of elderly people, suffering from varying memory impairments, is also going to more than double during the next 30 years . If we can improve the caretaker productivity by just 1% and postpone the decline in cognitive and memory functionality of the elderly by just 5 years, the need for more caretakers plummets from near 25% to about 15% . Thus accumulating vast savings accumulated for the society until the year 2040 .
Technological innovations have created a net of wireless information exchange between individuals with ubiquitous solutions, which could also be used to improve the quality of living for elderly. It is important to consider the availability and use of technology in different situations and to create novel solutions that meet the demands of users.
Memory problems are common for elderly and range from simple age-related problems to Alzheimer’s disease. A collaborative study in Nordic countries was made to individuals with dementia and the goal was to find out what kinds of aid devices are used, suitability for the users, and to gather improvement feedback . Conclusion was that introducing aid devices improved management of daily activities, helped maintain skills and made people socially active. A study by Sorri et al.  has also suggested that a way finding advising technology has the potential to provide important support for the elderly by similarly motivating and empowering them to perform their daily activities.
Based on the Nordic study basic requirements for future design can be made: combine functionalities, smaller number of devices, tailor interfaces and offer tele-presence assistance. Over 40 different aid-devices were used and the median of use was a year and four months. Looking at different types of aid-devices, e.g. GPS, calendar, portable alarm and a safety camera, some existing solutions e.g. a mobile phone already combine some functions, but doesn’t offer usability designed for dementia. Reducing the number of devices is feasible, but care has to be taken in the design of the devices for the end-users. However, misplacing a device, means losing all the functionalities associated with it. Based on the feedback data, the need to learn use of new devices was constant. The degrading nature of the disease presents new problems and existing devices had to be switched to new ones. In some cases people having same severity level of dementia in similar living environments didn’t always use same devices or used them differently. Devices with tailored information would lessen the need to introduce new devices and would be familiar to the user throughout the process. Implementation of tele-guidance could provide help regardless of place and time.
Sorri et al.  way finding prototype was tested with real users in real environment using predefined routes. The orientation advice was given through three modalities, visual, audio and tactile signals, two of which were used at a time. Nine subjects, with a median age of 84 years, participated in the user study. Their severity of dementia ranged between mild and severe, and walking abilities ranged from “frail to hobby skier”. In addition, two elderly persons were recruited as control subjects.
In most cases, the orientation with the way finding aid on predefined routes succeeded, with a few misinterpretations. The severity of dementia didn’t seem to foretell success in orientation with the way finding aid. Finding the right door, straying from the defined route, and the attractions of real- life context like other people were challenged most the test persons. Also the correct timing of the way finding advice was found to be crucial but difficult because of the varying walking speed of the subjects. If the advice appeared too early the subjects could forget them or, alternatively, they complied with the advice literally and as a result in worst cases, turned against the wall. As against using “left”, “right” and “go straight on” commands as the way finding advice seems to be more successful than using landmarks. Confirming subjects were on the correct track turned out to be beneficial for longer legs of the routes .
The applicability of the approach was first evaluated in a multidisciplinary research project Value Creation in Smart Living Environment for Senior Citizen (vesc.oulu.fi) workshop. This multi- disciplinary research group used living lab approach, where technology was designed and evaluated by and in co-operation with the end-users. Smart living environment technology was designed by taking into account human-computer interaction, communication, product and services as well as human interaction. In this study focus was on testing the designed navigation system prototype with scenario-based video with actors. In the video an actor (represents end-user) tested the navigation system prototype alone and with the help of security personnel and family. Quality of Life improvement was assessed using Quality Function Deployment (QFD) framework.
In this study focus was on presenting a new idea of a smart navigation system for people who have mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease, for instance, and who often require help in their daily activities. Aim of the whole system design was to make it as simple and illustrative as possible to accommodate the needs of such people. Specifically the aim was to design the system for senior citizens. This was achieved by designing the system based on a script written in the form of a storyboard . The script was first illustrated with four early storyboard designs which were presented and evaluated by the research team. Such approach was chosen to help the research team/audience better identify themselves with the main character of the scenario. According to the feedback the final 30 page storyboard was constructed and it formed the basis for the scenario video. The feedback also helped to make the video more compact and easier to understand. The storyboard was useful for the main character and other people to understand the whole concept of the safety navigation system.
The designed scenario video (1) features Marjatta, a 73-years old widower who lives alone. She is suffering from a mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease. Such characteristics were chosen for the main actor of the video, since they most likely are those observable in our end-user population. In the video we picture a typical shopping trip, representing typical activities of daily living. The trip included planning, walking from home to the shop and back. The journey contained different problems, such as choosing directions, with the possibility of the main character Marjatta being disoriented. A narrator leads the story forward. Different informative signs and guides are presented in the video which are essential for the senior citizen to comprehend the functioning of the smart navigation system but also help the viewers. The main idea of this short video was to demonstrate and describe how the possible future smart navigation system could actually work.
1 The Safety Navigation scenario video is available at: http://finplatform.pbol.org/content/InfoDayMaterials/Smart.navigation.for.senior.citizens.mp4
Safety Navigation Overview
The main purpose of the Safety Navigation system is to help elderly people in their outdoor activities that they would feel safe and secure, and to increase awareness of the situations of the elderly for those who are concerned. The objective of the system is to assist the seniors remotely utilising a variety of behavioural scenarios and modern technologies such as positioning, embedded cameras, multi-channel and multi-media communications, and laser pointers. The entire community of the Safety Navigation system consists of MoTe (Mobile Terminal) users and Aware users. Aware users are in charge or may provide help to the MoTe users.
Main Functionality and User Interfaces
The Mobile Terminal concept is developed on a base of the Android OS smartphones. Such technologies and connected frameworks were enhanced with personalized features such as addresses and safety check points. Safe areas, like the way to a bank, hospital or a store, can be also defined to the user. When the user selects a destination, the application shows the safest route for them. After departure a predefined countdown timer is activated for the user. If the time limit is exceeded, the system will notify Aware users via e.g. SMS or email message, including location, date and time, so they can take appropriate actions in order to help the MoTe user.
Ubiquitous Home Environment
Ubiquitous Home Environment (UHE) is a user-centric set of systems through which users can interact with their living environment and outside world. An essential part of the UHE is a serving engine. Typically the engine achieves interoperability with the UHE infrastructure through a variety of generic and dedicated modules. The engine should expose a number of GUIs to terminal devices.
PBOL at Oulu UAS has built an implementation of the serving engine, the UbiHOMESERVER. For sensing the physical environment, the UbiHOMESERVER interoperates with Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) and IPTV, mobile and web channels serve for human interaction. As a core of the engine, an intelligent module was developed. Knowledge technologies, such as Semantic Web, were considered in design.
The UbiHOMESERVER offers a set of GUIs through which it is possible to interact with the UHE as well as to consume and manage the ICT Home Services. Device recognition and content adaptation technologies were used to reduce end-user GUIs’ dependencies on devices. The end-user GUIs utilise multimodal information presentation, exposing textual, symbolic, colour, sound, voice and visual modalities. The UbiHOMESERVER and GUIs are able to handle environmental changes dynamically. A grid layout was chosen for the UbiHOMESERVER GUI design. Entire interface is implemented as low-hierarchical and intuitive.
Several systems, for example the Safety Navigation System, were made interoperable with the UbiHOMESERVER and thus became integrated parts of the UHE.
Safety Navigation System Architecture
The backbone of the Safety Navigation System is the UHE. The UbiHOMESERVER is running 24/7 and serve the users of the UHE. For example, family members may share the same living environment of the MoTe users, or be connected to it remotely. Those of them, who are trusted, may also be granted access to the MoTe user’s UHE and thus use a dedicated functionality of the Safety Navigation. Security staff doesn’t not have access to MoTe user’s UHE. Instead, their systems may interoperate with the UbiHOMESERVER through dedicated interfaces.
The Mobile Terminal may be implemented in a form of a self-sufficient all-purpose device, or in a form of a distributed/interconnected set of devices. Among those may be a wearable camera, a key ring with laser pointer and a smart phone. Due to a specific target group, the Mobile Terminals must provide end-users with controls and GUIs dedicated to the use by elderly people.
The wearable camera starts to take pictures of the surrounding area when the user is considered lost. Those pictures supplement location technologies and help the Aware users to identify the position of the MoTe user more precisely.
Users may launch a live audio/video conversation, and receive guidance from the Aware users at any time. A laser pointer can be used to display a proper direction with an arrow or other symbols on a flat surface when the user is not able to use audio/video communication properly.
The door guard generates an event when the user departures from home. Safety Navigation system keeps track of such state changes by logging them with a time-stamp. The log data may be used for defining safety areas and time frames more precisely, and in the future such knowledge may bring an opportunity to develop a proactive behaviour of the system.
This work has been partly funded by the Academy of Finland and JSPS (Japan) under Smart Living Environment for Senior Citizen research projects (VESC, P-SESC) and by Tekes for Well-being Ecosystem (Ryhti) project.
Petri Pulli, Zeeshan Asghar, Mika Siitonen, Risto Niskala, Eeva Leinonen, Antti Pitkänen, Jaakko Hyry, Dept of Information Processing Science, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland
Jarmo Lehtonen, Scope Associates Oy, Helsinki, Finland
Vadym Kramar and Markku Korhonen, (email@example.com), Pehr Brahe Center for Industrial and Services ICT (PBOL), Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Finland
Ferri P, Prince M, Brayne C, Brodaty H, Fratiglioni L, Ganguli M, Hall K, Hasegawa K, Hendrie H, Huang Y, Jorm A, Mathers C, Menezes PR, Rimmer E, Scazufca M (2005) Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet 366(9503):2112-7.
Niemelä K, Salminen K (2009) Kansallisten eläkestrategioiden muotoutuminen ja Euroopan unionin avoin koordinaatiomenetelmä (in Finnish, English summary). Sosiaali- ja terveysturvan tutkimuksia No. 104. Sastamala: Vammalan Kirjapaino Oy, s. 114-136.
Parkkinen P. (2007) Riittääkö työvoima sosiaali- ja terveyspalveluihin.(in Finnish, English summary). (VATT discussion papers 433. Government Institute for Economic Research, Oy Nord Print Ab.
Siitonen (2011). Muistihäiriöisten vanhusten turvanavigointi. Oulun yliopisto
Tietojenkäsittelytieteiden laitos, pro gradu -tutkielma. 84s.
Sorri L., Leinonen E. and Ervasti M. (2011) ”Wayfinding aid for the elderly with memory disturbances”; Proceedings of the 19th European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), ICT and Sustainable Service Development,
Tuunainen Virpi, Nandhakumar Joe, Rossi Matti and Soliman Wael (eds.), Helsinki, 2011. ISBN 978- 952-60-3574-1.
Working life is changing, also in the social and health care sector. In the future, experts in working life need skills to learn quickly new things as well as the ability to adapt to different working environments. Core competences in special fields of social and health care are needed, but also extensive competencies. (Suomen Fysioterapeutit 2011.) There are differences between the enterprise habits of men and women, fewer women than men run businesses in Sweden. Women have a great potential for running businesses. Sweden needs more entrepreneurs. Innovation and creativity are needed within all sections of society, including within the public sector, associations and education. The entrepreneurial perspective should be given to areas such as the education sector, research and the public sector. The education sector plays an important role in promoting entrepreneurship and improving knowledge of enterprise. (The Ministry of Enterprise, Energy and communications 2007-2013, 2011.)
Finnish Ministry of Education (2007) supports entrepreneurial way of working and entrepreneurship during studies in higher education. Positive attitudes, will and a desire to act are connected to a high level of professional competencies while supporting the entrepreneurial way of working. (The Ministry of Education 2009.) European Qualifications Framework defines the requirements for competences in the end of studies at higher education. For example it is defined that students must be able to solve complex problems, lead complex professional tasks and work independently in expert tasks. Finnish National Quality Frameworks defines also basic prerequisite of entrepreneurship to be part of competencies (Arene 2010).
In Forte project two entrepreneurs, who are running their own companies, in social and health care were interviewed about the recommendations of contents and implementation of entrepreneurship studies during higher education April and May 2011. Learning by doing was experienced to be a suitable way of learning entrepreneurial skills. Learning basic skills to do a business plan and learning about licensing practices were experienced as being an important part of studies. Different company forms and basic skills in business calculations were thought of as being important. Discussions about business plans were experienced as being important to widen students´ own way of thinking. Tendering in social and health care sector should have an important role during studies in higher education from the point of view of entrepreneurs.
Learning entrepreneurship during studies of social and health care sector in higher education
Higher education can offer students a learning environment where they can feel a desire to learn in close connection with working life. Teachers become coaches of learning and the process of learning is owned by the students themselves. Entrepreneurial way of working in student enterprise and in development projects of working life can offer possibilities for this kind of learning. The learner is an active owner of her learning process, and the method of learning in student groups and teams, customer projects, networks and in an entrepreneurial way seems to be an effective model to learn entrepreneurship. (Taatila 2010, Leinonen, Partanen and Palviainen 2004.) The entrepreneurial way of learning requires a change in the traditional teacher centered way of working. Peltonen (2008) did found a positive relationship between the support of team and team members’ efficacy beliefs, during the way to become an entrepreneurial teacher. Luukkainen (2004) presents a conception of future teacher: the teacher has ethical opinions and plays an active role in developing society. Content management, promotion of learning, future orientations, societal orientations, co-operation and continuous self and work development which means continuous learning are the constituents of teachership.
The aims of free and responsibly working students are a starting point. For teacher, the model requires an ability to take risks and indulge in the learning process together with students. (Peltonen 2008.) Dialogue is the process of thinking together. The possibilities of dialogue should be used in learning process. (Isaacs 2001.) Anttila (2003) says that dialogue is the way, maybe the only one, to educate so that the good of the learner can purely be promoted. Without dialogue it is impossible to know what is good for the learner, so the direction of education and teaching must be solved through dialogue.
Among women who are studying in higher education, entrepreneurship is not believed to be as attractive an option as to men. Two out of three men think that they can manage as an entrepreneur, compared to one third of women. (OPM 2009.)
In social and health care sector, entrepreneurs highlight more of their professional identity than their entrepreneurial identity (Österberg-Högstedt 2009, 24).
Faculty of Social and Health Care is participating 4-year long research project that measures the dynamics of entrepreneurial orientation within student population in several universities. Laurea University of Applied Sciences will do the research, but we have opportunity to explore our students´ answers. The questionnaire studies both direct entrepreneurial orientation and general ethical competence of the students and students who started this autumn answered the questionnaire. Lahti joined the project this autumn 2011 and here we will present some early observations from answers. In the end of Year 2014 we will find out has there been any changes in students´ entrepreneurial orientation during professional education. (Figure 1.)
Promoting entrepreneurship in the social and health care sector
The structures of social and health care are changing. Clients want to have services suited for their individual and special needs. There is more supply of private sector and clients can choose what services to use. The transmission from a public health care to a mix of public and private provides a wide range of new business opportunities, especially for women’s entrepreneurship. It is also important to promote entrepreneurial skills in working life.
International co-operation in Forte- Promoting women’s entrepreneurship in social and health care sector- project seeks to promote positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and develop new models for entrepreneurial teaching in social and health care sector. Joint development offers possibilities to share good practices internationally. The partners in project are the County Administrative board of Östgötaland, Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Linköping University, Innovation office of Linköping University and Vårdförbundet.
Studies of entrepreneurship have been developed since 2004 in social and health of Lahti University of Applied Sciences. Teachers created the path for students to learn about entrepreneurship, during their studies of social and health care. All of the teachers in social and health care took part in education days about entrepreneurship, eight teachers in larger 8 ECTS education. The group of teachers have later been educated more about entrepreneurship training. The results of the teacher questionnaire made in Forte- project described that the experiences of teachers who had been coaching students learning entrepreneurship were positive. This way, they had more time to meet individual students and their needs. The teachers described enthusiastic feelings while training their own student group. They also noticed that students must have a concrete platform and knowledge of how entrepreneurship studies are part of professional studies and how they build knowledge and competencies of the student. The faculty of social and health care in Lahti University of Applied Sciences has arranged inspirational entrepreneurship days for students in the past four years and the aim has been to promote positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship among all students of social and health care.
Promoting entrepreneurship in social and health care – Examples from Lahti University of Applied Sciences and Linköping University
The aims of development during Forte project.
Joint development and modeling of entrepreneurship training models and entrepreneurial learning environments
Joint development and piloting of entrepreneurship e-learning course solution for social and health care students is piloted and developed during project
Joint development and piloting models for awareness raising and more positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship
Innovative planning of services in social and health care
The students of social and health care can create innovative solutions for the challenges they meet during their studies and practical placements. Topical examples have been seen during compulsory 4 ECTS entrepreneurship studies in Lahti University of Applied Sciences. Studies are a special solution for students of social and health care sector. The most important aim in studies is to raise interest and positive attitude towards entrepreneurship. The basic understanding of entrepreneurship and business is also important. In future some of students can establish their own company, but entrepreneurial way of working is also needed when you work for someone else. Students did give feedback about the course in Spring 2011. Many students got interested or excited about the possibilities of entrepreneurship in the social and health care sector. They learned basic things what is required to be able to establish a company in social and health care sector. Some of them thought that it would be complicated. The experience of the course was that learning was implemented in an entrepreneurial way, which was mentioned to be important and useful.
Students as entrepreneurs in Lahti University of Applied Sciences
The group of students has established a student coop in the faculty of social and health at February 2011. It is the company owned by students and it offers the services of wellbeing. They can do customer projects in an entrepreneurial way and put their knowledge into practice during their studies. They have teacher coaches with whom they regularly discuss their projects and aims. Students negotiate contracts, plan the products, put them into the practice and do assessment together with clients, other students and coaches. The model of the role of the teacher as a coach of entrepreneurship is created and developed in Forte-project in close connection to students, teachers and networks, including Swedish partners working with the same subject.
Teacher coaches of students who work in the coop of students were interviewed at November 2011. The first experiences from the coaches of students is that the coach shouldn’t be too active in coaching. The students are active and responsible of their projects, they are also the owners of the projects. This kind of working is supporting the inner motivation of students. Pink defines motivation of learning so that the learner has a feel of mastery, purpose and autonomy about the things that she is learning (Pink 2011). Delivering different roles to students in projects was experienced to be positive solution, the responsibility of students was higher. Teacher coaches also described the coaching process to be empowering for themselves. The things to develop teacher coaches mentioned the regular weekly meetings with coop of students and the limited resources to work with clients. Students do have professional studies and practical placements parallel to working in coop, so the group of students don’t have possibility to meet coaches every week or take different clients. The structures of learning environment are not supporting working in student coop, the solutions are under development.
Implementing entrepreneurship in the Occupational Therapy Programme Linköping University, Sweden.
During the fifth semester a collaboration between occupational therapy (OT) students from Faculty of Health Sciences and engineering students at the Institute of Technology (both at Linköping University) takes place. The educational philosophy in the Faculty of Health Sciences is Problem Based Learning (PBL).The main idea behind PBL is the focus on learning and on the learner (Silén, 2004). The learning is based on real-situations, situations that students may face and have to deal with in their future profession. The supervisors’ role is to encourage, challenge and support students’ learning. The purpose with the collaboration is to design a product that can be used by people who experience different problems in activities of daily living. Throughout their work the students have to consider the aspect of Universal design (Design for all) focusing on the usability of the environment or products by all people, to the greatest degree possible, without adaptation (Christophersen, 2002).The students form small groups to work with a specific design project. The supervisors’ provide examples of everyday problems that persons, with or without disability, in different ages experience and encourage the students to go out and meet these persons. Persons with disabilities who don’t have the ability to use certain services, products and environments can feel excluded from the society (Letts, Rigby & Stewart, 2003).
By interviews and observations the students get the consumers point of view concerning the problem. In that way they analyze the problems closer to the reality based on the user´s perspective. Some topics of investigation can be: mobility in the society, safety in the home, shopping and leisure. The OT students have the role of a consultant on human factors in relation to environmental problems within the chosen problem area. They also give suggestions to practical solutions to the problem. During this process the OT students endeavor the role of an entrepreneur and are supported through literature within the field of entrepreneurship. Students are offered an opportunity to meet the University’s´ Innovation Office to receive information about how to prepare business plans. The main responsibility for the engineer students’ is to lead the project and to design a product concept in the technical sense. Good communication in the group and respect for each other is of utmost importance for a smooth development of the product concept. The role of the supervisor is to encourage and question the process of product development, in line of the PBL concept. A final oral report of the project is done at the end of the semester where the OT students contribute with both the OT and entrepreneurial perspective on the product concept developed.
To support the OT students learning about the entrepreneurial perspective a specific seminar “Design, consumer participation and entrepreneurship” takes place. In preparation for this seminar the students are provided with a work material about entrepreneurship and OT to enable the thinking about the design projects in an entrepreneurial way. For example the students make an analysis of strengths and weaknesses about the product and the role of the OT, competitors they have in that arena and how they can market the product in an appropriate way (Pattison, 2011). Based on the article ”OT – Outstanding talent: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Practice” (Pattison, 2006) they will also reflect on how working with design and entrepreneurship could affect the OT profession and the ability to act in a changing society. Both design and entrepreneurship are still new areas for occupational therapists to work with making this reflection important for the student learning. For instance Pattison (2006) argue that even small changes in a product can be as important as an world changing idea.
Students’ evaluations regarding the entrepreneurial part of the project reveal increased insight about the great value of the occupational therapy profession in other contexts and the close relationship between the methods, strategies and concepts used within the profession and the entrepreneurial approach to practice. Further, the students emphasize the importance of the interprofessional integration and the possibility to create solutions close to the consumer and in relation to real life situations. However, the students find the mutual collaboration sometimes difficult because of the different professional backgrounds. According to Letts, Rigby & Stewart, (2003) OT have the possibility to be an important team member when it comes to Design for all contributing with the knowledge about human functioning, disability, interaction between the person and environment and assistive technologies. It is suggested that OT have to engage in partnerships with professions like architects, constructors and designers for the possibility to develop mutual expertise. In summary, primary results of the entrepreneurial part of the project show that the students feel more prepared for a new and creative way of thinking within the profession, importance for evolving the profession for the future.
The entrepreneurial way of learning offers students a great possibility to personal and professional growth. Students learn to cope with the constant changes in the world as well as in working life. Students have fresh ideas and it is important to offer them real possibilities to develop their ideas in further and put them into the practice. Students can create even more innovative solutions if they network with other students from different professional fields. The models of learning in entrepreneurial way and in student enterprise are developed and also sharing good practices with partners. Topical discussions are how to make the whole learning environment able to support entrepreneurial way of learning and how to include it into the faculty structures.
Annamaija Id-Korhonen, Senior Lecturer, Project Coordinator, annamaija.id-korhonen(at)lamk.fi Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Social and Health Care
Jane Holstein, Lecturer, Forte project member, jane.holstein(at)liu.se Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Occupational Therapy Programme
Eija Viitala, Lecturer, Project Coordinator, eija.viitala(at)lamk.fi Lahti University of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Social and Health Care
Pattinson, M. 2011. An Entrepreneurial Approach to Practice – Sweden. (unpublished material) MPOT Pty. Ltd Lyndoch.
Pattinson, M. OT — Outstanding talent: An entrepreneurial approach to practice. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal (2006) 53, 166–172
Peltonen, K. 2008. Can learning in teams help teachers to become more entrepreneurial? The interplay between efficacy perceptions and team support. The Finnish Journal of Business Economics.
Pink, D. 2011. Drive. The Suprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Canongate books, Great Britain.
Silén, C. (2004). Problembaserat lärande – pedagogisk idé och metod. ( Problem-based learning – pedagogical idea and method). Pedagogiska enheten, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköpings Universitet. In Swedish
Suomen Fysioterapeutit. 2011. Raportti. Fysioterapeutti muuttuvassa maailmassa.
Taatila, V. 2009. Learning entrepreneurship in higher education. Education and Training. Vol 52 No.1. 2010. pp. 48-61.
Österberg-Högstedt, J. 2009. Yrittäjä ammatissaan sosiaali- ja terveysalalla – Yrittäjyyden muotoutuminen kuntatoimijoiden ja yrittäjien näkökulmasta. Doctoral dissertation, Turku School of Economics, p. 24.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Promoting Entrepreneurship in Social and Health Care Sector – International Joint Development 1328
At the moment, internationalisation plays an important role mainly in large companies and work places in North Karelia. The number of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) operating at a global level is still rather small. Exporting is restricted to relatively few companies in North Karelia: about 20 companies are responsible for 80 % of exports. The share of SMEs in exporting was only 11‐ 16 % of the total export figures for 2008‐2009. (See Pohjois‐Karjalan elinkeino, liikenne‐ ja ympäristökeskus 2010.) In order to rise to the challenge of international business, companies need competitive products and/or services, international demand for their products and/or services, personnel with international competence and motivation, as well as sufficient investment in international business.
2 Background information for the survey
The survey on the current state of internationalisation in companies in North Karelia was carried out in collaboration with North Karelia University of Applied Sciences and North Karelia Chamber of Commerce. The aim was also to prepare background material for the Development Plan for Internationalisation at NKUAS. The Planning Specialist, Anneli Airola, from NKUAS was responsible for the survey at NKUAS. She worked in close cooperation with the Manager Director, Tiina Tolvanen, from North Karelia Chamber of Commerce.
2.1 Research objectives
The main objectives of the survey centred on three areas: 1) to identify competence requirements in international business, 2) to explore the companies’ future aims related to international business and 3) to examine the cooperation between companies and educational institutions in North Karelia.
The online questionnaire related to the objectives of the survey was sent out by email to member companies of North Karelia Chamber of Commerce in February 2010. Replies were received from 309 companies. The data from the 309 questionnaires were coded for statistical analysis to answer the research questions. The SPSS was used for statistical analysis. In addition to this, twelve company interviews were carried out and the interviews were transcribed for the purpose of analysis. A press release was drawn up and circulated to local newspapers at a press conference in June 2010. The results of the company survey, as well as the results of the surveys carried out among the staff and students of North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, were reported in the publication Kansainvälistyvä Pohjois‐Karjala (Airola 2011). The quotations used in this article are direct quotations from the company interviews.
2.3 Background information on the companies
309 companies completed the questionnaire. With regard to the size of the companies: half of the companies (51 %) were small companies employing a maximum of four staff, 44 % of the companies employed 5 – 249 staff, and the remainder (5 %) represented larger companies employing over 250 personnel. The companies represented the following areas of business: 32 % industry, 19 % retail trade, 8 % tourism, 3 % accommodation, 3 % ICT and 43 % other areas of business.
Almost half of the companies (44 %, N=135) informed us that they were in some way engaged in international activities. The term `international activities´ refers, in many cases, to exporting; however, importing, producing services for foreigners, foreign investments, student exchange, recruiting foreign employees and trainee exchange can also be regarded as examples of international activities. In this study, 70 % of the companies representing the areas of tourism and accommodation had foreign customers, over half of the industrial companies (55 %) undertook export activities and 40 % of the companies in the retail trade were engaged in international activities.
The main market for all the companies was Finland. 19 % of the companies also did business in the Nordic countries, 23 % in other European countries and 15 % in Asia or North and South America. The biggest single foreign market was Russia (13 %), followed by Sweden (12 %) and then by Germany (10 %).
3 Business Competence
“We need competence, organisational skills and a clear strategy.”
When trying to become global players, companies need above all to have a competitive product or service and international demand for their products or services; however, companies also need to have a desire for expansion into international markets as well as the ability to expand. The competence of personnel in international activities is crucial. Investing in international business is a natural and essential alternative or even a prerequisite for growth, if domestic markets are not sufficient for a company. Sometimes a pure chance, such as an encounter at a trade fair, could start a company off in international business. The web pages of companies offer opportunities for potential contacts. A more secure way to internationalise is, of course, thorough preparation based on analysis of foreign markets and reflection on the company’s strengths and weaknesses towards opportunities offered by possible target markets. (See e.g. Pirnes & Kukkola 2002.) There are many challenges involved in embarking upon international business, e.g. choosing business partners, the new operational environment and sufficient communication skills. The international competence of personnel has a strong effect on success in international markets.
The area of international business competence in companies in North Karelia was focused on with two research questions relating to: 1) the current international business competence of staff and 2) recruitment requirements for international roles.
3.1 Shortages in international competence
“Versatile language skills are an important and special challenge for a company.”
In relation to international business competence, the sufficiency of staff resources, expertise about customers’ requirements and concrete skills in international business activities were studied in this survey. The term `concrete skills in international business activities´ refers to skills in legal matters, logistics, insurances and delivery terms, finance, language and cultural knowledge, and competitive pricing.
The greatest shortages were found in legal matters, logistics, insurances, delivery terms and international finance (36 – 39 %). About one third of the companies felt that they had shortages in language skills and cultural knowledge. According to about one third of the companies (N=101), staff resources were not sufficient to take part in international business. (See Figure 1.) In the company interviews, it was pointed out that staff resources were often a real challenge for local companies. In smaller companies, as well as in companies that have recently started their international business, it was usually the managing director who was responsible for international business. He/she was usually the founder and the main owner of the company. If the managing director had some international expertise, he/she was usually involved in so many other company issues that he/she was not able to dedicate himself/herself fully to international business. On the other hand, limited resources meant that it was not always possible or desirable to hire new employees.
The least shortages were found in the items ‘expertise about customers’ requirements’ and ‘competitive pricing’. Only 16 % of the companies felt that they had problems with competitive pricing. Usually in surveys investigating international competence, the competitive pricing is a problem, because in foreign trade it is impossible to price products/services at the same principles as in domestic trade (Larjovuori, Laiho & Talonen 2004.)
When the areas of business were compared, industrial companies were found to have the most shortages in international competence (37 %), whereas in other areas about one quarter of the companies felt that they had shortages in international competence. The kinds of shortages in international competence were found to be about the same in all the areas.
3.2 Recruitment requirements for international roles
“Finding skillful employees is a challenge.”
In the following question, the respondents were asked to consider the kind of requirements needed for a person who was being recruited for international roles. Skills related to oral communication were considered to be the most important: language and communication skills (71 %), good negotiation and cooperation skills (49 %) and good salesmanship (30 %) (see also Jussila, Mäkinen, Mäkirinne & Tompere 1997). (See Figure 2.)
The results show that personal communication was considered to be very valuable in international business. In addition, familiarity with trade practices and practical processes was valued, together with the ability to acquire information. In this area, the replies were similar regardless of the field or the size of the company. In many interviews, it was pointed out that there could be problems in recruitment, particularly if the company was situated outside Joensuu. On the other hand, if the company was known as a good brand the location of the company had no relevance at all.
Language, culture and communication are challenges in international business. Language competence is considered to be extremely important in international business and particularly important in building successful relationships. If there is no common language between business partners, companies could fail to understand the true meaning of business. As a result of the liberation of world markets, requirements related to language competence have diversified. Employees who are competent at several languages are needed. According to the staff and educational survey carried out by the Confederation of Finnish Industries (EK) in 2009, English, Swedish and Russian are the most important languages needed for working life in Finland. The position of English will remain strong and will be even more important in the future. As the significance of Asia and Southern America is set to increase in international trade, more speakers of Portuguese, Chinese and Spanish will be needed in the future. (Elinkeinoelämän keskusliitto 2010.)
This survey also found English to be the most important requirement in recruitment. However, finding a person with versatile language competence, e.g. also with a knowledge of German, French, Russian or Spanish, is extremely difficult in North Karelia. Despite the fact that North Karelia is a neighbour to Russia, not very many people have a good command of the Russian language.
In addition to language skills, cultural competence is required in international business communication. Sometimes, the role of culture is over‐emphasised: in Europe, business people can get along very well if they are true to themselves and take other people into consideration in an appropriate way. However, the world is rich in habits and culture: for example, in the case of Asia it is good to have cultural knowledge, since habits and values differ from those of ours. One of the companies interviewed had organised a course on Chinese culture for its staff, because China was a new business partner for the company. It is also worth pointing out that personal experiences are important in learning culture.
4 Aims for internationalisation in the future
“Internationality is a lifeline for our company.”
Aims related to internationalisation in the future were examined by asking companies about: a) international business as a target for development, b) expansion by international business and c) the company’s position on the world‐wide markets.
The results show that almost half of the companies were willing to face the challenge of global markets and wanted to invest in internationalisation. 41 % of the companies felt that internationalisation was an important target for development during the next three years; similarly, almost half of the respondents felt that internationalisation was a way to expand the company’s growth (43 %); and as many as 51 % of the companies intended to become among the best companies in the world.
More than half of the companies in the areas of industry, tourism, accommodation and ICT felt that internationalisation was an important development target and was a way for them to expand. Correspondingly, more than half of these companies wanted to be among the best companies in the world. In the field of retail trade, companies were not so optimistic: only about 25 % of the companies here felt that internationalisation was an important target for development and a way to expand. On the other hand, however, 40 % of the companies in retail business still wanted to be among the best companies in the world.
The companies were asked whether they intended to expand their market areas. 29 % of the companies (N=85) gave a positive answer. The compani s in industry had the greatest expansion plans (49 %), whereas the companies in the retail business had the least expansion plans. Expansion plans were directed mainly towards Europe, but Asia was also clearly an area of interest. As for individual countries, Russia was of the most interest, followed by Sweden, Germany, the Nordic countries, Germany, China and Japan. Related to their plans for expansion, the companies were asked whether they had plans to develop new products or services to meet the needs of foreign customers. The results show that 37 % of the companies intended to develop new products or services.
One significant characteristic in the globalisation of North Karelia is its location as Russia’s neighbour. The close vicinity of growing Russian markets gives Finland a competitive edge. This kind of advantage is not, however, be taken for granted. Instead, a lot of determined work is required. In order to succeed in business with Russia, companies need to have knowledge about Russian business, culture and legislation as well as business manners (see Korhonen, Sivonen, Kosonen & Saukkonen 2008). Over 40 % (N=129) of the companies felt that their knowledge about Russian business was not sufficient. Expectations towards doing business with Russia in North Karelia are huge. The interviews revealed, however, that markets in Russia are not easy and surprises can always be anticipated. For example, Russian legislation and language barriers make business rather complicated. Also on a national level, companies felt that the missing common language was an obstacle in developing business between Finland and Russia (see e.g. Elinkeinoelämän keskusliitto 2010).
Not all of the companies interviewed were interested in Russian business: some did not need Russian cooperation, as they did not have suitable products or just did not want to work in Russian markets. Some companies pointed out that North Karelia was perhaps rather too Russia‐oriented
and that Russia was emphasised too much in public spe ches. Some companies stated that they did not want to take a risk concerning Russian business, but instead chose less risky markets. Also, shortages in knowledge about Russia could present a clear obstacle.
5 Cooperation between companies and educational institutions
Only 8 % of the respondents had cooperated with educational institutions in relation to international activities. Most cooperation had taken place with North Karelia University of Applied Sciences in the following fields: students’ theses, international trainees and staff training. Cooperation related to students’ theses had been carried out with larger companies. According to the respondents, there might be more opportunities for cooperation in the field of theses, but it would require more activity from companies as well as information and activity from North Karelia University of Applied Sciences. Some companies had also cooperated with the University of Eastern Finland, North Karelia College, the North Karelia Adult Education Centre, Joensuu normaalikoulu and Niinivaara comprehensive school.
As a result of English degree programmes and exchange activities in the University of Eastern Finland and North Karelia University of Applied Sciences, companies had been given the opportunity to hire an international trainee. North Karelia University of Applied Sciences arranged work placements for 270 foreign trainees from 1993 onwards. Trainees came from different countries, mainly Belgium, Germany, France and Poland. (Kohonen 2010.) In this survey, 41 companies had taken trainees from EU‐countries, Russia, China, Turkey, Korea, Japan, Israel and the Ukraine. Industry and the retail trade had been the most active in hiring international trainees. Approximately the same number of companies was also interested in hiring a trainee in the future.
The aim of the survey was to study internationalisation in companies in the region of North Karelia. 309 companies were involved in the study. The survey provided good and extensive information on internationalisation in North Karelia: international business competence, aims related to internationalisation in the future and the cooperation between companies and educational institutions.
International business means new challenges for a company as well as new risks. The results obtained in this survey are similar to those in previous research (e.g. Larjovuori, Laiho & Talonen 2004): SMEs lack many of competences needed in international business. Internationalisation, however, is for many SMEs a necessity rather than a choice. International business offers new dimensions but, on the other hand, more competence is required from staff than that required in domestic trade. The results of the survey show that there were shortages in international business competence. When recruiting personnel for international roles, communication skills, language and communication skills, negotiation and cooperation skills as well as salesmanship, turned out to be the most important requirements. English was the most important language, but people with a command of other languages would also be needed.
The companies had significant aims for the future: almost half of the companies stated that internationalisation was an important development target during the next three years and believed that internationalisation was a way to expand the company’s activities. More than half of the companies questioned intended to be among the best companies in the world in the future. However, only 30 % of the companies were planning to expand their marketing area, only 16 % had an internationalisation strategy and only 37 % intended to develop new products or services. Thus, it seems that aims related to internationalisation would remain abstract aims and not turn into concrete actions. Developing new, competitive products or services is very important, because they have a key position in the growth of the national economy and thus, in employment. On a national level, Finnish companies, particularly early‐stage and established entrepreneurs, also do not have high growth expectations (Global entrepreneurship monitor 2010).
Promoting internationalisation is of vital importance for North Karelia’s future. Promoting internationalisation is one of the major topics in different regional strategies. For example, according to the strategy of North Karelia 2030, international level competitive business life and reinforcement of expertise and employment are among the main foci (Regional Council of North Karelia). International business offers new dimensions but, on the other hand, more competence is required from staff compared to that required for domestic trade. As North Karelia is a rather small region (about 166 000 inhabitants), close cooperation between the business sector and educational institutions is needed to increase the international competence of staff. At the same time, the global competence of students is being developed, thus ensuring a qualified labour force for regional needs.
Based on the results of the survey, the following actions are recommended: 1) Training and education, e.g. professional education, short courses and seminars for companies to increase the level of business competence. It would be important for local educational institutions and regional development companies to discuss how each of them could promote the internationalisation of the region and furthermore, to agree on the distribution of training and education. Modern technology should to be utilised effectively in training. 2) To develop the availability of international trainees for companies. The cooperation of companies with international trainees has been shown to be valuable. Therefore, it is desirable that this kind of cooperation continues. 3) A language skills survey in companies to find out the current and future language needs of companies. The previous language skills surveys in North Karelia date back to the early 2000’s (Airola 2004 and Airola & Piironen 2005), therefore, a new survey is required. This kind of survey would help both companies when planning their staff’s language training as well as educational institutions when they are developing language studies.
Anneli Airola, PhD, Planning Specialist, anneli.airola(at)pkamk.fi, North Karelia University of Applied Sciences (NKUAS)
Jussila, K., Mäkinen, M., Mäkirinne, M. & Tomperi, T. 1997. Kansainvälistymisen edellyttämät työntekijän henkilövalmiudet. Helsingin yliopisto. Vantaan Täydennyskoulutuslaitos.
Kohonen, T. (toim.) 2010. Opiskelijat yritysten kansainvälistymisen edistäjinä. Kertomuksia Pohjois‐ Karjalan yritysjohtajilta ja ammattikorkeakoulun opiskelijoilta. Pohjois‐Karjalan ammattikorkeakoulun julkaisuja B:19.
Korhonen, K., Sivonen, T., Kosonen, R. & Saukkonen, P. 2008. Pohjoiskarjalaisten pienten ja keskisuurien yritysten Venäjä‐yhteistyöpotentiaali ja tukitarpeet. Helsingin kauppakorkeakoulu. Kansainvälisten markkinoiden tutkimuslaitos. http://www.uef.fi/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=f8388817‐53d6‐4eab‐8ac4‐ ea389e5c1fe6&groupId=325583&p_l_id=330131 April 2, 2011.
Larjovuori, R‐L., Laiho, M. & Talonen, H. 2004. Kansainvälistyvän pk‐yrityksen liiketoimintaosaamisen kehittämistarpeet. KTM Julkaisuja 27/2004. Elinkeino‐osasto.
Pirnes, H. & Kukkola, E. 2002. Kansainvälisen liiketoiminnan käsikirja. Helsinki: WSOY. Pohjois‐Karjalan elinkeino‐, liikenne‐ ja ympäristökeskus. 2010. Pohjois‐Karjalan vienti taanti 2009.
Towards Innovation Pedagogy outlines the concept of innovation pedagogy adopted at Turku University of Applied Sciences. The collection consists of theoretical introductions to this pedagogical approach accompanied by texts illustrating its practical applications.
The book is a follow-up to the Finnish-language work Kohti innovaatiopedagogiikkaa (edited by Liisa Kairisto-Mertanen, Heli Kanerva-Lehto & Taru Penttilä), which was published as a part of the same series in 2009. Although some of the articles are heavily based on the corresponding texts from the earlier Finnish version, the bulk of the material is either completely revised or written exclusively for this publication.
The articles are grouped into two sections. The first half comprises items with a more theoretical point of view on innovation pedagogy. The latter part focuses on individual cases, presenting good teaching and learning practices from the Faculty of Technology, Environment and Business.
It is hoped that the publication inspires discussion and generates research for developing innovation pedagogy further. The texts are primarily targeted at the staff members of universities of applied sciences as well as all the planners, developers and decision-makers partaking in activities relating to higher educational institutions.
Towards Innovation Pedagogy (Reports from Turku University of Applied Sciences 100, 2011) is available both as a free electronic book and as a printed version on Loki publication service.
Anttoni Lehto, Liisa Kairisto-Mertanen & Taru Penttilä (eds.)
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Towards Innovation Pedagogy – A new approach to teaching and learning for universities of applied sciences 1004
Computer engineering education in Raahe was established in 1972. Raahe Campus of School of Engineering is the oldest educational institution of such kind in Finland. The School of Engineering is a part of the Oulu University of Applied 2 Sciences (formerly known as Oulu Polytechnic). The university is one of the largest universities of applied sciences in Finland with approximately nine thousand students.
From early days of education in Raahe a practical implementation of graduation work has always been a part of an educational process. Students from Raahe used to work in companies or in educational and research laboratories of Raahe campus and solve real-world problems or develop engineering solutions for the needs of on-going projects. Such practices spread around Finland and now are an essential part of educational processes of any Finnish university of applied sciences.
A history of an international research and development work has started at the same time – as some of the students from Raahe were involved into international projects in those companies, where they did their graduation work. Sometimes students worked abroad in foreign companies. This type of international R&D was not collaborative. Teachers from Raahe campus who supervised students’ graduation work were just able to acquaint themselves with some of the international practices and R&D work of the companies.
When in 1995 Finland joined the European Union, new opportunities for international collaboration opened to all educational institutions in Finland within Socrates Programme activities, such as Erasmus project, and Leonardo da Vinci Programme. Aarno Meskanen, a headmaster of Raahe Engineering School that became to be the Raahe Institute of Computer Engineering in 1999, encouraged students and staff to utilize benefits of exchange programs. A first significant result of a staff exchange was a visit of German research center by Jouko Paaso and Pentti Koskinen and their work at Fraunhofer. Both of them started their dissertations and after a period of time obtained PhD degrees.
A first international R&D project in Raahe started at a beginning of 1998. An idea of the Active Self-Directed Learner (ASL) project was to introduce educational materials explaining a nature of energy, energy sources, and the use and saving of energy. A result of this work ready for distribution was published on a CD in a form of a multimedia content.
Educational institutions from four countries participated to ASL project: Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and Finland. The project has also given great opportunities for students – to be involved into an international collaboration. Some of the students were involved for an entire duration of the project – three years.
A significant step towards to development of international R&D in Raahe happened in 2001 when Pehr Brahe Laboratory (PBOL) started its operations. PBOL was founded by three organisations: VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, University of Oulu, and Oulu Polytechnic (this is how the Oulu University of Applied Sciences was called by that time). Research professor Jouko Paaso was a Head of PBOL. In a beginning research fields included distributed software engineering methods, intelligent software solutions and technologies, as well as network and software business.
Groups of workers (including students) from every founding organisation shared working environment at PBOL and contributed to joined R&D operations. University of Oulu was in charge of fundamental and theoretical research. VTT was in charge of fundamental and practical research. Raahe Institute of Computer Engineering was in charge of applied research. Such excellent arrangement of PBOL’s operations allowed students from Raahe to be involved into a variety of R&D projects as members of any of the PBOL’s working groups. Students performed development and engineering work together with students of University of Oulu, and research staff of all three organisations.
One of the first international R&D activities at PBOL was the ITEA VHEMiddleware Project. The project was about interoperability between future Home Networks belonging to several distributed Smart Homes with a purpose of establishing of one Virtual Home Environment. It is also important to mention internationally-acknowledged works of Yrjö Hiltunen in such research area as the Artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly – on applying of Self-organising Maps (SOM) in a variety of applied cases.
In 2004, when Aarno Meskanen retired from his post as the director of the Raahe Insitute of Technology and Business, Timo Pieskä was elected to this position. A new director also understood well an importance of an international collaboration. Staff exchange and mutual visits with foreign universities continued. During the past years collaborative agreements with several foreign universities, including some from Russia and Ukraine, were concluded. This brought a wide geography for a student exchange. A very effective collaboration was established with UBO, University of Western Brittany, Brest, France.
Currently the Oulu University of Applied Sciences is reorganising own organisational structure and educational resources. The biggest changes are happening in Raahe. First, an early engineering full-time education of the Raahe Campus of School of Engineering (how it is called now) will gradually be transferred to Oulu, while a share of professional and adult education is planned to be increased in Raahe. Second, an increase of R&D activities is planned in Raahe. This will also include an international collaboration.
This year PBOL celebrated its 10-th anniversary. It is now called the Pehr Brahe Center for Industrial and Services ICT. Now PBOL operates under an agreement between Oulu University of Applied Sciences, University of Oulu, VTT and the Town of Raahe. A nature of collaboration between research groups changed in accordance to new agreement, but an idea of joined research remained.
A group from OUAS is the biggest at PBOL. It is completely formed by people from the Raahe Campus, but has a well-established cooperation with people from the Oulu Campus. The group is led by Markku Korhonen, who is at the same time a Head of R&D activities in OUAS Raahe.
Research areas are the following:
Semantic Web and Technologies
Artificial Intelligence, Software Agents
System Interoperability, SOA
Mobile Services and Applications
Emerging Web Development Technologies
Ubiquitous Web Access
Device Recognition and Content Adaptation
Mobile Devices and Technologies
Home Automation Networks and Technologies
Consumer Electronics Devices and Technologies
These research areas are very large and it is quite difficult to maintain a high level of expertise in all of them inside a group. This is where research collaboration may help. It is essential to acquire expertise and resources from own university, or from one of the partner organisations. In addition to that in Raahe strong cross-border collaboration with certain universities was established.
For example, exchange students may be employed to real development work during their project work courses. With UBO University from France, a practice of sending students for a practical training was acknowledged. Almost every year a group of three students from that university comes to Finland for a practical training at PBOL. As for expertise exchange with the same university, videoconferences and brainstorms are organised few times a year. During those, joint research project opportunities, educational and organisational moments as well as concrete research problems are discussed.
Researchers from PBOL used to attend to high-level international conferences, workshops, and organisational events. It helps to maintain a level of knowledge and develop an international appearance. Reading research papers and watching presentations online will never replace a pleasure and a usefulness of a live conversation with an expert. By answering a proper formulated question, the expert may be able to save hours if not days of work. During such live conversations there may be an opportunity for clarification or refinement of information or even for a short brainstorm in a group of other people involved into a conversation.
Regular attending to international events of similar kind will allow knowing more people of that community and being known by them. Active participation to discussions and sharing knowledge and experience may help to maintain a positive image and cause an interest to own work of a participant. Thus there may occur an opportunity to discuss of research collaboration including joint applications for project funding (e.g. Seventh Framework Programme, Advanced Research & Technology for EMbedded Intelligence and Systems, Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme, etc.).
One more way to maintain a level of knowledge and develop an international appearance is to be active in online activities relevant to a research domain. This includes a membership in selected associations, unions, forums, and boards; activities at public calls for reviewing documents (e.g. standards or specifications); evaluation of a work; or just attending to online discussions of important issues. It also includes activities in online professional networks (such as groups at LinkedIn).
One has to be aware though that online activities and a process of maintaining of collaborative connections by correspondence consume highly such an important resource as time.
A very important requirement for a successful international collaboration is an availability of a concrete result of a work in an area of an expertise. Generally saying, the best result of any work is if someone (e.g. a company) will use it. A good result should be demonstrated and described. A demonstration depends on a nature of the work: it can be a series of graphs, or a working prototype. A description of work is often a weak point in case of universities of applied sciences. The best description of work is a research paper or an article. But sometimes due to resource constraints it is even difficult to produce a proper documentation for the work. This may limit collaboration opportunities.
One of the practices adopted in Raahe is organising demonstrations and collaboration-discussion meetings with visitors and exchange staff from foreign universities. Sometimes visitors are also able to demonstrate results of their work. Research staff and teachers interested in those may be invited to attend to such demonstrations. In case of mutual interest on certain work results, a further information exchange is following. This is where a lack of work description may have a negative impact.
When having a variety of research areas, it is easier to achieve success by refining a research for a smaller research domain. The OUAS group at PBOL was involved into research projects of different domains: mobile services, mobile marketing, enterprise information systems, industrial and business solutions, and home solutions. The last domain became to be a main scope of the most recent projects, such as UbiAtHome, SPIN, and Ryhti. During past projects, UbiAtHome and SPIN, practical solutions for a notion referred as Ubiquitous Home Environment (UHE) were developed.
UHE is a user-centric system – through which users can interact with their living environment and outside world – that is a part of global ubiquitous environment which is physically limited to a living area and surroundings. Home Environment is considered to be a main research domain of the OUAS group in an on-going project Ryhti. Knowledge and experience obtained in a given research domain by the group at PBOL, allowed OUAS to become to be a member of several international consortiums. One of those consortiums formed a project that was granted funding under the EU Ambient Assisted Living Joint Programme.
From a spring of 2010 the OUAS group began international activities relevant to the Ambient Assisted Living. The group started from a poster presentation at AALIANCE conference in Malaga, Spain. One of a consequential activity was attending to the AAL Forum 2010 in Odence, Denmark. There was a chance to see presentations of big EU initiative as for a development of universal open platform and reference specification for Ambient Assisted Living (universAAL) – and to discuss with people from that project.
Finland was not involved into the project. As a result of discussions, OUAS was invited to collaborate with the universAAL consortium. From that time the OUAS group at PBOL started an evaluation of an opportunity for a similar R&D project in Finland. As a result a new initiative was 8 publicly announced 03.05.11 at the EU networking workshop organized by VTT. The initiative is called the Finnish Reference Platform for Home Environment.
Finnish Reference Platform for Home Environment – is a national-wide platform that could serve as a basis for home solutions and can be built by a joined consolidated effort of all the stakeholders. Thus an idea is to adopt the best from a variety of EU and Finnish R&D initiatives and commercial solutions and consolidate them into one approach. The approach will result in a reference architecture for home environment solutions and services that will bring considerable benefits to end-users, businesses, and academia. Such initiative will allow Finland to be at the edge of an international R&D in a domain of home solutions.
The initiative was presented to and discussed with the universAAL project consortium during the Open Day event in Pisa, Italy, 05.05.11. Collaboration schemas are agreed.
Updated description including technical and organisational details, a list of interested stakeholders and useful information about the Finnish Reference Platform for Home Environment will be available at the following URL: http://finplatform.pbol.org
Vadym Kramar, project Officer (R&D), vadym.kramar(a)oamk.fi, Oulu University of Applied Sciences
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa International R&D at Oulu University of Applied Sciences – practices from Raahe 1157
This paper presents preliminary results of the REMOWE project. The overall objective of the project is, on regional levels, to contribute to a decreased negative effect on the environment by reduction of carbon dioxide emission by creating a balance between energy consumption and sustainable use of renewable energy sources. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and use of renewable energy sources are broad areas and this project will focus on energy resources from waste and actions to facilitate implementation of energy efficient technology in the Baltic Sea region within the waste-to-energy area. The focus is to utilize waste from cities, farming and industry for energy purposes in an efficient way. The project seeks to facilitate the implementation of sustainable systems for waste-to-energy in the Baltic Sea region and specifically, in a first step, in the project partner regions. The project’s operation time is 12/2009- 12/2012.
The project partnership consists of the Mälardalen University, with the School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology coordinating the project, and The County Administrative Board of Västmanland in Sweden, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo, and University of Eastern Finland (UEF) in Finland, Marshal Office of Lower Silesia in Poland, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Fachhochschule Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel in Germany, Klaipeda University in Lithuania, and Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency (ERKAS) in Estonia.
2. Milestones of the REMOWE project
As the first task, partner regions investigate the current status, the bottle-necks and the needs for development and innovation. Partnering regions will then jointly study possible future status and approaches to be followed, taking into consideration the characteristics of each region. Here, tailored innovation processes will be organized in five project regions. These innovation processes will result in action plans for supporting SMEs as well as recommendations for improving regulations and strategies in the regions. Possibilities to build a regional model of the waste-to-energy utilisation will be piloted in the project, with North Savo in Finland as a target region. This model could be a decisionsupport system for policy-making and investments.
The project activities are divided into 5 work packages. Work Package 1 concerns project management and Work Package 2 contains the project communication and information activities. In Work Package 3 the current status of the partner regions are explored, in Work Package 4 the possible future status is investigated and in Work Package 5 modelling of a sustainable regional waste-to-energy production will be studied.
The work presented in this report is part of the work in Work Package 3. The aim of this Work Package is to investigate the current status in the whole chain of waste- to-energy utilisation in each partner region. The results from this work package are important background information for the activities in Work Package 4 and 5. The first step in development of action plans and strategies is to investigate the current conditions and systems from which the development has to start. By describing the current status in the different partner regions it will also be possible to learn from each other and find best practices that can be transferred to other regions. The aim is also to gather basic information needed for modelling of possible future systems and their environmental impacts in Work Packages 4 and 5. Data is being gathered concerning:
Waste generation in farming, cities, industry
Energy use and infrastructure • Organic wastes composition and properties
Biogas potential of different waste substrates
Existing systems and technology used for sorting, utilisation and use of residues for/in waste-to-energy systems including economic profitability and system performance
Relevant governing rules, legislation, regional interpretations and current development ideas • SMEs interests in the waste-to-energy area and current development ideas
Regional current situation in waste advisory services
The current status in the different partner regions will then be compared and best practices that can be transferred to other regions will be identified. This will be done within a workshop with all partners.
3. Characteristics of the project regions
Five regions of the Baltic Sea region, representing various administrative units, participate in the REMOWE project (Figure 1):
Eesti (Estonia) – the whole country,
Województwo Dolnośląskie (Lower Silesia) – one of the 16 regions of Poland,
Klaipedos, Telsiu, Siauliu, Taurages apskritis (Western Lithuania) – 4 counties of Lithuania,
Pohjois-Savo (North Savo Region) – a province in Eastern Finland,
Västmanlands län (the County of Västmanland) – one of 21 counties in Sweden.
Germany is also represented in the project, however, as opposed to all the other participants they act as experts without any specific region.
Tab. 1 shows the general characteristics of each region and the entire project area. The total area is 113,195 km2 and its population amounts to 5.75 million. Lower Silesia is the largest region in terms of population – 2.9 million, while the populations of the smallest regions (in Sweden and Finland) amount to approximately 250 thousand residents.
4. Status of renewable energy utilisation in the representative countries
Fig. 2 presents country average shares of renewable energy in final energy consumption in 2005 along with respective targets for 2020. Sweden is leading with 39.8% of renewable energy in 2005 and the target of 49% in 2020, followed by Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. Poland had clearly the lowest share of renewables (7,2%) in 2005 and also relatively lowest target of 15% in 2020.
5. Potential waste to energy sources
The following waste and by-products have been specified as renewable energy sources:
municipal sewage sludge,
products, by-products and waste from agriculture and forestry.
In the following sections a comparison of main data concerning waste management and energy recovery from municipal waste, sewage sludge and biomass from agriculture and forestry is given. The comparison is limited to two regions: Lower Silesia (the most populated region) and Västmanland (the smallest region). These regions represent, respectively, the least and the most advanced countries in terms of renewable energy utilisation.
5.1 Municipal waste
Waste management in the two regions differs significantly, both in terms of quantity of waste generated as well as its treatment (see Fig 3.). Specific waste generation amounted to 691 kg/inhabitant in Västmanland while in Lower Silesia only to approximately 330 kg/inhabitant in 2008. In Lower Silesia 86.5% of the generated waste is deposited onto landfills, while in Västmanland only 8% of waste is landfilled. In the latter region 50% of waste is incinerated with energy recovery and 41% of waste undergoes recycling. In Finland in 2008, municipal waste amounted to 520 kg/inhabitant, from which 51% was landfilled, 17% incinerated with energy recovery and 32% recycled .
5.2 Municipal sewage sludge
Lower Silesia and Västmanland also differ with regard to the number of waste water treatment plants and the level of biological treatment of sewage sludge in these plants. Six waste water treatment plants located in Västmanland are equipped with enclosed fermentation chambers and utilise energy from biogas. Total production of biogas amounts to 2,165 million m3 /year. In Lower Silesia there are 203 waste water treatment plants, of which:
seven plants collect biogas and use it for electricity and heat generation (co-generation),
four plants collect biogas and use it for heat generation only,
ten plants generate biogas without collecting it (open fermentation chambers).
Currently in Lower Silesia 8.6 million m3 /year of biogas is collected in the fermentation chambers of waste water treatment plants. In Västmanland the respective figure is 2.2 million m3 /year.
In North Savo, there are 35 municipal waste water treatment plants, of which one plant digests waste water sludge and collects biogas for electricity and heat generation. In 2008, 1.1 million m3 /year of biogas was produced in this plant, of which was converted 2090 MWh electricity and 4222 MWh heat. Only 8000 t sludge is used in biogas production out of total 47000 t that is produced annually  .
Energy generation potential from biogas from municipal sewage sludge is estimated to 130 GWh/year in Lower Silesia,19 GWh/year in Västmanland and 18 GWh/year In North Savo.
5.3 Products, by-products and waste from agriculture and forestry
Manures for soil fertilisation, are not classified as waste, but as organic fertilisers. Faeces intended for fermentation do acquire the status of waste and are subject to waste management legislation. In the case of plant biomass, some of it may be treated as by-products, some other part as waste. Also, agricultural products can be used to produce energy in e.g. fermentation technology, together with animal manure.
The total energy potential of manure in North Savo is estimated to 198 GWh/a, which is based on the number of domestic animals, estimated manure generation, statistical properties of manures and batch reactor experiments    .
Tab. 2 provides a comparison of the energy potential of animal manures generated in both regions. In both cases the total quantities are significant. In the case of Lower Silesia it is equivalent to the yearly energy production by a plant with a capacity of about 17 MW.
6. Infrastructure for waste treatment and energy recovery
Waste management infrastructure in the two regions differs significantly. In the case of Västmanland, a significant portion of the waste is processed outside the region. It concerns in particular, the incineration of municipal waste in large regional installations. In the region there are 15 recycling stations under operation as well as one methane co-fermentation plant, which treats separately collected biowaste and two landfill sites accepting pretreated waste (landfilling of untreated waste is forbidden). In Lower Silesia, almost all municipal waste is processed in the region, in 18 plants. There are also 42 active landfills receiving municipal wastes.
Waste management in the Lower Silesia region is significantly less developed than waste management in the County of Västmanland in Sweden. This applies to both the levels of separate collection and recycling, as well as biological and thermal treatment. In 2008, the portion of municipal waste which is landfilled in Lower Silesia amounts to approximately 86.5%, while in Västmanland the respective portion is only 8%. In Finland, 51% of the municipal waste was landfilled in 2008.
Municipal waste, sewage sludge, industrial waste, and waste and by-products from agriculture are a significant source of energy with majority thereof being renewable energy.
This article is based on results of analyses conducted during the project cofinanced by the European Union under the Baltic Sea Regional Programme (Project No. #034, REMOWE). The content of the article contains only opinions of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the position of the European Union.
Emilia den Boer (1), Ryszard Szpadt (1), Eva Thorin (2) , Ari Jääskeläinen (3) , Laura Malo (3,4), Tuomas Huopana (5)
1 Institute of Environment Protection Engineering, Wrocław University of Technology Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland
2 Mälardalen University, P.O. Box 883, SE-721-23 Västerås, Sweden
3 Environmental Engineering, Teaching and Research, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Microkatu 1 C, P.O. Box 6, FI-70201 Kuopio, Finland
4 Center for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo, Sepänkatu 2 B, P.O. Box 1049, FI-70100 Kuopio, Finland
5 The Department of Environmental Science, The University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland
 den Boer, E., Szpadt, R., den Boer, J., Ciesielski, S., Pasiecznik, I and Wojtczuk, O. Current status of the waste-to-energy chain in Lower Silesia, Urząd Marszałkowski Województwa Dolnośląskiego i Politechnika Wrocławska, Wrocław, 2011.
 Thorin E., et al. Current status of the waste-to-energy chain in the County of Västmanland, Sweden. Mälardalen University, Västerås, 2011.
 Olivier, J.G.J., Tuinstra, W., Elzenga, H.E., van den Wijngaart, R.A., Bosch, P.R., Eickhout, R., Visser, M. Consequences of the European Policy Package on Climate and Energy Initial assessment of the consequences for the Netherlands and other Member States, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency,2008
 Malo, L., Koponen, L., Jääskeläinen, A. Current status of the waste-toenergy chain in the county of North Savo, Finland. Center for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment for North Savo and Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio 2011. Will be available from: http://www.remowe.eu
 Huopana T., Energy efficient model for biogas production in farm scale, Master’s Thesis, Renewable Energy Programme, The University of Jyväskylä, 2011, Retrieved 20.5.2011 from: http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:jyu- 201103211905
 Huopana T., and co. Becoming article about Regional biogas production in North Savo area, The University of Eastern Finland.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Current Status of Waste-to-Energy Utilisation in some parts of Baltic Sea Region 5469
Authors: Ilkka Väänänen and Sirpa Laitinen-Väänänen
In order to facilitate the flow of knowledge, ideas and learning, communities should adopt the principles of knowledge creation and continuous learning; they must turn into “learning regions” (Florida 1995). In “learning regions”, individual and collective expertise and aspects emphasising communality are joined together (Tynjälä 2006). In striving toward a knowledge-building culture, Bereiter (2002) emphasises the close collaboration between researchers and teachers. In higher education this refers to the tighter collaboration between teachers, students and researchers. The demand that teaching and research and development (R&D) should be more firmly drawn together is a response to the number of changes in the modern knowledge society, including changes in the mission and in the funding of higher education and in the nature of knowledge and learning.
Traditionally, universities and universities of applied sciences (UAS) have offered separate learning environments for theoretical and practical studies. Today’s challenge has been to bridge this gap and enhance the interface between universities and workplaces. Study modules like internship (LaitinenVäänänen et al. 2007) and project works (Helle et al. 2006) have been seen as forums for this kind of encounter. When learning in classrooms can be fictive and theoretical, the participation in the R&D activities offers students a chance to step outside and into real life to meet potential employers and clients. At its best, students have the chance to participate in R&D –projects so they may integrate theoretical and practical knowledge, test ideas, work together on specific problems and contribute to the mode-2 type labeled knowledge production (Gibbons et al. 1994) in multidisciplinary teams, which has been considered illustrative for UAS (Surakka 2008).
In mode-2 type of knowledge production, the traditional distinction between R&D and learning/teaching tends to break down. Distinguished from traditional mode-1 type of knowledge production, which is investigator-initiated and discipline based, the mode-2 type is problem-focused and multidisciplinary. Though individual interests exist, the goal of knowledge production is shared and mutual.
Furthermore, the state policy in an individual country, like in Finland, can challenge the UAS to contribute to regional development by carrying out R&D and by organising higher education studies and promoting the lifelong learning (Act of University of Applied Science 351/2003, 5§). In addition, the UAS have been expected to promote and diffuse innovations by working together with local partners, like public organizations and especially small and medium size enterprises.
The aim of this article is to examine and reveal basic elements that occur during the R&D integrated learning process. The observations were made by reflecting on the procedure and the feedback of implemented learning and “Good Ageing in Lahti Region” (GOAL) -research and development project. Finally, different models of integrating learning and R&D were discussed and conceptualised.
“Good Ageing in Lahti Region” (GOAL) -research and development
The bachelor students (n=134) from social and health care degree programs (nursing, physiotherapy, social services) in Lahti UAS participated as research assistants in the large, ten year “Good Ageing in Lahti Region” – research project (GOAL), who’s unique network combined one university, one UAS, one research institution, one public health care organisation and 15 municipalities. The assignment of the students was to organise the follow-up measurements in collaboration with lecturers (n=3) and other research actors e.g. project steering committee (n=12) during winter 2008. The integration of the GOAL research project into the professional studies of students was designed by faculty lecturers and the research coordinator. In order to analyse the learning outcomes of the participants, the feedback/reflection meeting was organised at the end of process. The data from students, lecturers, researchers and examinees (n=2817) was collected by interviews, students’ learning diaries, observation notes, and a 360°- feedback questionnaire.
According to the feedback, students were very active and the working atmosphere was mostly positive. The students found rehearsing practical skills prior to fieldwork important and necessary. In the beginning of the fieldwork, they felt afraid and tense, but afterwards the experience turned positive. The work in the R&D project was brisk compared to the theoretical studies and they appreciated the research-centered approach. Furthermore, the R&D project offered the students the change to integrate different professional competencies.
The examinees found students friendly and customer-oriented, although some mistakes and errors in measuring and in results occurred.
The participating researchers and project steering committee found students’ contribution challenging, but very important and helpful. The integration of students’ work into data collection decreased the expenses and the whole data collection would not have been possible without the students’ collaboration.
Lecturers were mostly motivated and satisfied with the process. They appreciated the researchers’ participation. They felt that this kind of studying emphasises the importance of integrating new content knowledge into practice. However, they wished for smaller student groups and for a longer fieldwork period. Furthermore, the co-operation between degree programs was inflexible and they did not succeeded in integrating the practical fieldwork into the theoretical studies well enough. In addition, the faculty was not informed well enough about all the learning possibilities the project served. For example, only one thesis was integrated into the GOAL-project.
In the following chapter, the conceptualised R&D integrated learning model is represented. The model was constructed by analysing the procedure and the feedback of the GOAL–project.
R&D integrated learning model
The basic elements in the R&D integrated learning model, represented in Figure 1, are based on the vision and the mission of the higher education institution and on the challenges of the region and the discipline faced today and in the future. It is a systematic increasing of knowledge. The model of R&D integrated learning combines knowledge, skills and attitudes. After setting the aims, the working and study methods are selected, followed by the different outcomes, which represent the increased know-how of the region.
R&D-integrated learning facilitates working life orientation and studentcenteredness in curricula. Therefore, it is highly challenging and motivating at the same time. This kind of new studying and learning model implies a transfer from teaching to learning. The guiding principle in teaching and learning is competence-driven. In addition, learning environments, like R&D projects, which facilitate students’ participation, are encouraged. Furthermore, the R&D-integrated learning model challenges lecturers’ to develop their R&D project skills and skills to supervise students in conducting the projects.
Network and Innovation Integrated Learning –model (NIIL)
Regarding the increase of regional knowledge and know-how, other contributors besides higher education institution are involved. The Finnish innovation system consists of the producers and users of the knowledge and the various interactive relations between them. Central elements in the innovation system are education and training, R&D, and knowledge-intense business. New knowledge is produced by universities, research institutions, and business, among others.
In the next section of this article, we present the “Network and Innovation Integrated Learning –model (NIIL), where knowledge is a process of construction. In NIIL, partners negotiate meanings and build knowledge within a social context together (Figure 2).
During the traditional student- and learning task-centric teaching model (Figure 2), the student is in focus. At worst, she or he stays as a passive object, where as in student-driven NIIL-model, students work as an equal partner in an innovative eco-system, where diverse partners–e.g. higher education institutions, businesses, the public sector–work and innovate together. This kind of rewarding community of knowledge production includes more creativity, flow and spontaneous buzz than rules, order and liner processes. Innovation competence is mentioned as one of the generic competences of UAS graduates in Finland (Rectors’ Conference of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences ARENE ry. 2010). Description of the competence in bachelor level is described as following: “is able to conduct research, development and innovation projects applying the existing knowledge and methods of the field, is able to work in projects, is capable of creative problem solving and development of working methods and is able to find customer oriented, sustainable and profitable solutions”.
There are two existing examples of the NIIL-model from Lahti University of Applied Sciences which can be mentioned: The Pocket School
(http://www.pocketschool.fi/) and the “Rock your body” – learning module. In the Pocket School, students use smart phones to capture service-design
significant moments and real world situations. They can then save and share the video clips via social media. The key concepts in the Pocket School are prosumer (professional–consumer, producer–consumer), service design, crowd sourcing, foresight, smart phones, brand, tele-education, video clips and social media. The “Rock your body” – learning module integrates theory and practice into the scientific research study (Väänänen 2003). The “Rock your body” idea was initiated by a private furniture company. The learning model has produced an innovative fitness training program for elderly people, a new rocking chair prototype, and several scientific research papers (Väänänen 2004; Väänänen 2006a; Väänänen 2006b; Väänänen 2006c; Niemelä et al. 2007; Niemelä et al. 2008; Niemelä et al. 2010)
These two presented R&D learning models illustrate the basic elements in the interface of R&D and learning. They both need further assessment and practical testing in order to validate them. The models can be used in conceptualising the teaching practices and in visualising the role of the diverse partners in knowledge production.
We wish to thank Mrs. Reetta Jänis, Mrs. Anne Vuori and Mr. Sami Makkula for their kind help with this article.
Ilkka Väänänen, PhD, is a research director at the Innovation Centre in the
multidisciplinary Lahti University of Applied Science in Finland and is a member
of the Good Ageing in Lahti Region – project steering group.
Sirpa Laitinen-Väänänen, PhD, is a principal lecturer at the Teacher Education
College in Jyväskylä University of Applied Sciences. Previously she
worked as a principal lecturer at the Faculty of Social and Health Care in Lahti
University of Applied Science and as a member of the research group in the
Good Ageing in Lahti Region – project.
Helle, L., Tynjälä, P. & Olkinuora, E. (2006), Project based learning in postsecondary education – theory, practice and rubber sling shots, Higher Education, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 287-314
Laitinen-Väänänen S., Talvitie U & Luukka MR. (2007), Clinical supervision as an interaction between the clinical educator and the student, Physiotherapy Theory and Practice, Vol. 23, No. 2, pp. 95-103.
Lave; J. & Wenger, E. (1993), Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Niemelä, K., Väänänen, I., Laitinen-Väänänen, S. & Huuhtanen, M. (2007), Six weeks rocking chair intervention – A randomized controlled trial. European Seating Symposium.
Niemelä, K., Väänänen, I., Laitinen-Väänänen, S. & Huuhtanen M. (2008), Six week rocking chair intervention – A randomized controlled trial. 24nd International Seating Symposium, Syllabus, Vancouver, pp. 78-80.
Niemelä K., Väänänen I., Leinonen R., Laukkanen P. Benefits of home-based rocking chair exercise for physical performance in community-dwelling elderly women: a randomized controlled trial – A pilot study. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2010 published ahead of print 27.08.2010 DOI: 10.3275/7230.
Rauhala, P. (2008), R & D Activities in Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences Promoting Regional Development, in Higher Education Institutions and Innovation in the Knowledge Society, In K. Laine, P. van der Sijde, M. Lähdeniemi, & J. Tarkkanen, (ed.) Rectors´ Conference of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences ARENE ry., Helsinki, pp. 95-101.
Rectors’ Conference of Finnish Universities of Applied Sciences ARENE ry. (2010), Recommendation for the application of the national qualifications
framework (NQF) and the generic competences of qualifications at universities of applied sciences. http://www.arene.fi/data/dokumentit/8e315c43-
Surakka, J. (2008) Ammattikorkeakoulujen tutkimus- ja kehitystoiminta, Tiedepolitiikka Vol 33, No 1, pp. 25-30.
Tynjälä P. (2006), Opettajan asiantuntijuus ja työkulttuurit In A-R. Nummenmaa & J. Välijärvi (ed.) Opettajan työ ja oppiminen. Jyväskylä. Jyväskylän yliopistopaino, Koulutuksen tutkimuslaitos, pp. 99-122.
Väänänen, I. (2003), Rocking chair research as a learning process for physiotherapy students. 14th International WCPT Congress. Barcelona, Spain,
7-12, June 2003. SI-PO-0804
Väänänen, I. (2004), EMG activity and trainability of the rectus abdominis during rocking in a rocking chair with elderly men. Isokinetic Exercise
Science Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 48-49.
Väänänen, I. (2006a), Physiological responses of the rocking in a rocking chair to elderly people with physical disabilities. 22nd Int Seating Symposium, Syllabus, Vancouver, pp. 135-137.
Väänänen, I. (2006b), Rocking Chair and Health. Nordisk Siddesymposium. Kopenhagen. pp. 70-71.
Väänänen, I. (2006c), Even a small movement is good for health. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 1, p. 298.
Hanna-Kaisa HytönenKommentit pois päältä artikkelissa Notes on the Developing R&D Integrated Learning in Regional Knowledge Production 1073
Sivustollamme hyödynnetään evästeitä, jotta voimme seurata sivuston käyttöä ja kehittää palveluamme. Jatkamalla sivuston käyttöä ilman asetusten muuttamista hyväksyt evästeiden käytön.HyväksyKieltäydyLISÄTIETOJA